人论 Anthropology – 论到人的教义
圣经教义 – 有关的重要信仰
作者： 马可. 康布隆 神学博士 Mark G. Cambron, D.D.
OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER IV 第四章 人论的大纲
I. Man in His State of Integrity. 壹. 人的整体状态
A. His Origin. 人的起源
B. His Nature. 他的本性
C. His Constitution. 他的组成成份
D. His Condition.他的状况。
E. His Headship. 他领导代表性。
II. Man in His State of Sin. 贰. 人在罪裡的状态
A. The Fall of Man. 人类的堕落
B. The Fallen Sons of Adam. 亚当子孙的堕落
III. Man in His State of Grace. 叁. 人在恩典下的状态。
A. His Standing.他的地位。
B. His State.他的状态。
C. His Two Natures. 他的两个本性
Chapter IV 第四章
Anthropology comes from the Greek word “anthropos,” meaning “man.” Anthropology is the doctrine of man. There are many different definitions of man, some comical, some tragic. In this study of anthropology we shall go to the true source — the Scriptures.
Man has always wanted to know who he is, where he came from, and where he is going. God’s Holy Word gives the only complete account.
人论 （人类学）这原文Anthropology来自于希腊语“anthropos”，意思是“人”。人论是关于人的教义。在世间有许多关于人的不同定义，有些是喜剧的，有些是悲剧的。在这章人论的学习中，我们会到真实的源头 – 圣经那裡去探寻。
I. MAN IN HIS STATE OF INTEGRITY
By this we mean man in his original state of purity, his uprightness.
A. His Origin.
a. Not by Abiogenesis or Spontaneous Generation. This theory holds to the belief that there was no creator of man, but that man simply came into being without a cause and began to exist, fulfilling the nursery rhyme, which reads:
Where did you come from, Baby dear?
Out of the nowhere, into here!
This argument needs no answer, but in order to forestall criticism, we simply state that if such a thing as abiogenesis were possible, there would be no power to keep it from happening again. There is no record of a second occurrence, and, of course, it never happened in the first place.
b. Not by Evolution or Natural Developments. A short definition of evolution is: “That process by which, through some kind of aggregation of matter through many ages and species, by chance or by law, man appears.” This concept has held sway for many years, but its adherents are on the decline. Modern science, such as anthropology, is refuting all of its claims. The Bible declares that man is a separate creation of God, and that the animals were created at a different time, completely apart from man. Evolution teaches that man and animals have a common origin, which branched out into the different species. In refuting this we use the Scriptures and human reasoning as follows:
(1) It is Opposed to Scripture. The Scriptures state: “After his kind” (Gen. 1:24). This pins the species down to themselves, forbidding them to evolve into a completely new species.
(2) There is No Record of Animal Becoming Man. Surely, in six thousand years, if evolution were true, there would be living examples of it today.
(3) There is No Evidence that the Missing Link Has Been Found. Many so-called history books show pictures of the creature they term as the missing link. These pictures are photographs of drawings, and not photographs of real creatures, as none of these exist. The “missing link,” we are told, is that creature between man and the ape. Its picture is wholly the imagination of the artist who took a piece of a bone or tooth and built a man around it. It is the same as a man taking a key hole and building a house around it. We would like to quote William Jennings Bryan concerning the “missing link”: “If the missing link has been found, why are they still looking for it?”
(4) There is No Evidence that Primitive Man Differed From Man Today.
(5) There Is Proof that Human Blood is One Blood. (Acts 17:26). World War II has proved this. The blood of a white man can be placed into the veins of a black man, and vice versa, and give life. Blood transfusions have only been in practice during the last hundred years, but God revealed this to us several thousand years ago.
(6) There is a Great Difference Between the Constitution of Man and Animal.
(a) Physically. Man is an upright being, while animals are on all fours.
(b) Mentally. Man has intellect, while animals have instinct.
(c) Morally. Man is the only creature of God that has moral qualities.
(d) Spiritually. Man alone has been created with spiritual concepts. He alone of all the creatures can worship God.
2. Positive. Man is a direct creation of God. “God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them” (Gen. 1:27).
（3）没有证据表明这‘缺失的环节’曾被发现过。许多所谓的历史书籍展示出他们所宣称是‘进化缺链’之生物的照片。但这些照片是画出来之图像的照片，而不是真实生物的照片，因为这些东西没有一个是存在的。 这些“进化缺链”，他们说是介于人与猿之间的生物。但这些生物的图像完全是艺术家的想像；这些艺术家拿着一块骨头或牙齿，然后围绕它建构出来一个人体。这就好比你想像一个钥匙孔，然后围绕着那（空空的）钥匙孔去建造出一栋房子来一样的不可信。关于“缺失的链接”，我想引用威廉·詹宁斯·布莱恩（William Jennings Bryan）的话。他说：“如果进化的缺链已经被发现了，为什麽那些科学家现在还在寻找它呢？”
B. His Nature.
1. Original Image of Man. “God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (Gen. 1:26a). “Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man” (Gen. 9:6). See also I Corinthians 11:7; James 3:9.
a. Seen in Man’s Triunity. “The LORD God formed man out of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen. 2:7). “The very God of peace sanctify you wholly: and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ” (I Thess. 5:23).
b. Seen in Man’s Intellectual and Moral Nature. “Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds; and have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him” (Col. 3:9, 10). See also Ephesians 4:24.
c. Seen in Physical Likeness. It is true that God is a Spirit (John 4:24); God is invisible (Col. 1:15). Yet God has always had a form in which He manifests Himself: “As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake with beholding thy form” (Ps. 17:15, R.V.). See also Philippians 2:6,7; Mark 15:12; John 5:37, R.V.
Christ was not made in the form or image of Adam, but Adam was made in the form, or image of Christ, who was to come: “Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come” (Rom. 5:14).
2. Original Innocence of Man. Some declare that Adam was created in holiness, or righteousness. This is not quite correct. Man was created perfect, yes, but he was created in innocence. There is a vast difference between innocence and righteousness. Innocence is sinlessness that has never faced trial. Righteousness is innocence that has been tested and tried, and has come out victorious.
1.人的原始形象。 “神说，我们要照着我们的形像，按着我们的样式造人”（创世记1:26a）。 “凡流人血的，他的血也必被人所流。因为神造人是照自己的形像造的。”（创世记9：6）。另见哥林多前书11:7;雅各书3:9。
a.从灵魂体的三合一来看。（创世记2:7） “耶和华 神用地上的尘土造人、将生气吹在他鼻孔裡、他就成了有灵的活人 “。（帖撒罗尼迦前书5:23）。 “愿赐平安的 神、亲自使你们全然成圣．又愿你们的灵、与魂、与身子、得蒙保守、在我主耶稣基督降临的时候、完全无可指摘。”
c.从身体的相似来看。确实，“神是一位灵”（约翰福音4:24）; 神是人肉眼看不见的（歌罗西书1:15）。然而，神总是用某种形式显现自己：（诗篇17:15）“至于我、我必在义中见你的面．我醒了的时候、得见你的形像、就心满意足”。另见腓立比书2:6-7;马可福音15:12; 约翰福音5:37。
C. His Constitution.
As we shall see, man is composed of earthly (Gen. 2:7) and spiritual elements (I Thess. 5:23; Heb. 4:12).
1. Body. His body was made from the earth. This was the first part of man that was formed. “The LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen. 2:7). The body is set forth in Scripture as the house of the inner man. “How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is the dust, which are crushed before the moth?” (Job 4:19). See also II Corinthians 5:1, 3, 4. The process by which God made man is not known; we leave that up to God. Men give their opinions and speculations, but they remain as such. The word “dust” does not mean clay, or old dirty dirt, but the finest materials of the earth.
a. Analysis Proves Man’s Source. Modern chemical analysis detects in the body the same elements that are in the earth beneath man’s feet; such elements as sodium, carbon, iron, and the like.
b. Earth Sustains Man’s Existence. The body is sustained by that which grows out of the earth. It is man’s body and not his spirit that is sustained. Famine in our modern day has proved that if vegetation is taken away, life is taken away. Kill vegetation and you kill man.
c. Death Substantiates Man’s Elements. At death corruption sets in, and man’s body soon returns to the dust from which it was formed. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return” (Gen. 3:19).
1.身体。他的身体是由土造成的。这是人被形成的第一部分。 “耶和华 神用地上的尘土造成人形，把生气吹进他的鼻孔里，那人就成了有生命的活人”（创世记2:7，新译本）。圣经阐明了，身体是内住之人的家。 “何况那住在土房、根基在尘土裡、被蠹虫所毁坏的人呢。？”（约伯记4:19）。另见哥林多后书5:1,3,4。上帝创造人的过程细节我们并不知道; 这是属于神的奥秘。人们对于上帝的造人有各自的意见/推测，但奥秘依然是奥秘。 “尘土”这个词，其意思并不是指粘土或旧污泥，而是指地球上最好的材料。
2. Soul. “The LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen. 2:7). See also I Corinthians 15:45. The soul is the seat of the emotions and appetites. Plants, animals and man have bodies; only animals and man have a soul; but only man has a spirit. The soul is that conscious life which is in man and animal. Plants have life, but it is unconscious life. There is a difference between the souls of men and the souls of animals. The animal’s soul is connected with his body, while man’s soul is connected with his spirit. The soul of an animal dies with the animal, but man’s soul never dies, for he was made a “living soul” — a soul that would never die.
As stated, the soul of man is the seat of his emotions and appetites, and the following Scriptures will bring out the degrees of same: Appetites: “Thou may kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lust after, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which he hath given thee: the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the roebuck, and as of the hart” (Deut. 12:15). Desires: “If any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, and then take as much as thy soul desires; then he would answer him, Nay; but thou shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force” (I Sam. 2:16). See also Deuteronomy 12:20; Psalm 107:18; Proverbs 6:30; Isaiah 29:8; I Samuel 18:1. Hates: “David said on that day, Whosoever get up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David’s soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house” (II Sam. 5:8). Mourns: “His flesh upon him shall have pain, and his soul within him shall mourn” (Job 14:22). Is Vexed: “The man of God said, Let her alone; for her soul is vexed within her: and the LORD hath hid it from me, and hath not told me” (II Kings 4:27b). Rejoices: “I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom deck himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorn herself with her jewels” (Is. 61:10). Suffers:“They said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us” (Gen. 42:21). Sorrows: “He said unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch” (Mark 14:34).
Where does man get his soul?
a. Pre-existence. This theory teaches that all souls that have ever been in the world, or shall ever be in the world, were created in the beginning. At time of conception, they are united with the body. This was taught by Plato, but it was never accepted by the church, as it is without Scriptural foundation.
b. Creationism. This belief holds that after forty days of conception the soul unites with the body. Roman Catholicism proposes this. If this belief is true, then God is the creator of sinful souls.
c. Traducianism. This is the truth which holds that both soul and body are derived from the parents. “Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth” (Gen. 5:3). See also Acts 17:24-26.
2. 魂。（创世记2:7，新译本） “耶和华 神用地上的尘土造成人形，把生气吹进他的鼻孔里，那人就成了有生命的活人，名叫亚当”。另见哥林多前书15:45。魂是情感和慾望的所在。植物，动物和人类都有体;只有动物和人才有魂; 但（动物没有灵）只有人才有灵。魂是那知觉/意识的生命，这知觉在人与动物裡面中才有。植物有生命，但植物是无意识知觉的生命。人的魂和动物的魂两者之间是不同的。动物的魂是与其身体联结，而人的魂则是与灵联结。当动物死了，它的魂也死了，但是人的魂永远不会死，因为人是被造成一个“有生命的活人（A living soul)” – 直译就是，一个活的魂。
喜好：(申命记12:15) “然而在你各城裡、都可以照耶和华你 神所赐你的福分、随心所欲宰牲吃肉、无论洁淨人、不洁淨人、都可以吃、就如吃羚羊与鹿一般”。
慾望：(撒母耳上 2:16）“献祭的人说：必须先烧脂油、然后你可以随意取肉．他就说、你立时给我、不然我便抢去 ”。参见申命记12:20; 诗篇107:18; 箴言6:30; 以赛亚书29:8; 撒母耳记上18:1。
c. 遗传论。认为魂和身体都来自于父母。这是真理。（创世记5:3） “亚当活到一百三十岁、生了一个儿子、形像样式和自己相似、就给他起名叫塞特”。另见使徒行传17:24-26。
3. Spirit. Here is where man differs from all creatures. In Hebrews 12:9 God is said to be “Father of spirits.” This does not mean the Father of angels, but of the spirits of men made perfect. God is never said to be the Father of souls.
“As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also” (Jas. 2:26). When a body dies, the soul departs with the spirit of man. The soul and spirit can be separated “the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart” (Heb. 4:12). However, there is no Scriptural proof that they are ever separated. The rich man of Luke 16 goes to Hades upon death, and he has both soul and spirit with him. See also Matthew 10:28.
The spirit of man is the seat of his intelligence. “What man know the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God know no man, but the Spirit of God” (I Cor. 2:11). Animals do not possess intelligence. “Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding: whose mouth must be held in with bit and bridle, lest they come near unto thee” (Ps. 32:9).
The word “spirit,” both in the Hebrew and Greek, is sometimes translated as “breath,” and “wind.” The context determines the translation.
The materialists say that the word for spirit should be “breath,” and that when man dies he is gone forever.
Some people say that man lost his spirit at the Fall and regains his spirit at conversion. This would make him a dual being however, and this conception has no Scriptural grounds.
人的灵是他智慧的所在。 “除了在人裡头的灵、谁知道人的事呢？ 像这样、除了 神的灵、也没有人知道 神的事。”（林前2:11）。动物没有智慧的灵。（诗篇32:9 )“你不可像那无知的骡马、必用嚼环辔头勒住他．不然、就不能驯服”。
4. Heart. When we speak of the heart, we do not mean the muscle in the body, but rather the seat of conscience. “Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water” (Heb. 10:22). See also I John 3:19,20; Acts 2:26; 5:3, 5; Matthew 22:37. There is a warning that there may be a profession without a possession, a head knowledge without a heart trust. “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that does the will of the Father which is in heaven” See also Matthew 7:22, 23.
4.心。当我们谈到心时，我们指的并不是人身体裡面的心脏那块肉，而是指良知的所在。（希伯来书10:22） “当我们心中天良的亏欠已经洒去、身体用清水洗淨了、就当存着诚心、和充足的信心、来到 神面前”。另见约翰一书3:19,20; 使徒行传2:26; 5:3,5; 马太福音22:37。这裡有一个警告，可能会有人口头宣称他有,而实际上却没有，可能仅仅有头脑的知识却没有内心的相信。耶稣说 “不是每一个对我说：‘主啊，主啊！的人，都能进入天国，唯有遵行我天父旨意的人，才能进去。” （参见马太福音7:21-23）。
D. His Condition.
By this we mean man’s condition in his state of integrity before he fell.
1. His Knowledge. He had immediate knowledge, intuitive knowledge. He was not an adult infant. He named all animals that came from the hand of God; It would take an intelligent man to do this. “Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him” (Gen. 2:20).
在人的状况方面，我们指的是人堕落之前他的整体上 – 完整无缺的状态。。
1.他的知识。亚当被造时就立即有知识，有直觉的智慧了。他不是成年婴儿（有大人的身体而仅有婴儿的智力）。他那时为神的所造的各种动物命名; 这需要有知识，才能做到这一点。（创世记2:20） “那人就给各样牲畜、空中的雀鸟，和野地的各样走兽起了名字；只是那人没有遇见一个和他相配的帮手。“（新译本）。
2. His Fellowship. He was able to commune with God. “The LORD God commanded the man saying, Of every tree of the garden thou may freely eat” (Gen. 2:16). “God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat” (Gen. 1:29).
2.他的交往。他能够与神相交。 “耶和华 神吩咐他说、园中各样树上的果子、你可以随意吃”（创世记2:16）。 “神说、看哪、我将遍地上一切结种子的菜蔬、和一切树上所结有核的果子、全赐给你们作食物。“（创世记1:29）。
3. His Home. It was located in a garden. “The LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed” (Gen. 2:8). Some men claim that primitive man was a cave man, but this was not so, for he was a garden man. The first records we have of men living in caves are of the persecuted: “Of whom the world was not worthy; they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth” (Heb. 11:38), and of the insane: “when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit” (Mark 5:2).
This garden is not called Eden, but rather, the Garden in Eden. “Eden” means plains, or plateau.Armenia, no doubt, is the place where man began.
3.人的家。是安置在一个园子裡。（创世记2:8） “耶和华 神在东方的伊甸立了一个园子、把所造的人安置在那裡。”。有些人声称最初的人（原始人）是个住在洞穴裡的人，但事实并非如此，因为起初被造的那人是个住在园子裡的人。我们读到的头几个记载住在洞穴中的人是受迫害的人和心智错乱的人：（希伯来书11:38），“他们在旷野`山岭`山洞`地穴、飘流无定．本是世界不配有的人。 ”。（马可福音5:2）”耶稣一下船、就有一个被污鬼附着的人、从坟茔裡出来迎着他”。
4. His Companion. “For Adam there was not found an help meet for him. . . . And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man” (Gen. 2:20, 22). The words “help meet” are not a compound word, but two separate ones, meaning “fit for.” Eve was “fit for” Adam. Some who laugh at this “rib story” cannot tell us where woman did come from. Why do you suppose God did not make woman from the dust? For the simple reason that God did not want to have two origins of man.
God can make a human being in four ways:
Without a man or woman, as Adam.
Without the aid of a woman, as Eve.
Without a man, by a woman, as Christ.
4.他的伴侣。 （创2:20,22新译本） “只是那人没有找到配偶帮助他。 . . 耶和华 神就用那人身上所取的肋骨、造成一个女人、领他到那人跟前。”
5. His Work. “God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that move upon the earth” (Gen. 1:28). “The LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it” (Gen. 2:15). There was employment in the garden, but no toil. There was work, but not the kind that wears one out. The word “keep” in Genesis 2:15 is best translated “guard.” Against whom was Adam to guard the garden? Against wild animals? No, there were none. Against wild men? No, for Adam was the only man. He was put on his guard against the possible appearance of the Devil. Whenever man is placed in a position of trust, God always gives ample warning.
5.人的工作。（创世纪1:28） “神就赐福给他们、又对他们说、要生养众多、遍满地面、治理这地．也要管理海裡的鱼、空中的鸟．和地上各样行动的活物。“。（创2:15） “耶和华 神将那人安置在伊甸园、使他修理看守。”。花园裡有事要做，但没有劳苦的工。有工作，但不是那种汗流浃背的苦工。创世记2:15中的“看守”这个词最好是被翻译成“守卫”。亚当守护花园要抵挡谁呢？要抵挡野生动物吗？不，裡面并没有。要抵挡野人吗？不，因为亚当是唯一的人。他是被放在他的守卫上为要抵挡魔鬼的可能出现的。每当人被放在接受托负的位置时，上帝总会给足充分的警告的。
6. His Food. “God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat” (Gen. 1:29). The first man and beast of the field were vegetarians. Their diets included no meat. Man was not carnivorous as evolutionists claim.
7. His Responsibility.
a. To Replenish the Earth With a New Order — Man. “God blessed them and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it” (Gen. 1:28). Adam was the first man: “The first man Adam was made a living soul” (I Cor. 15:45). Eve is the mother of all human beings. “Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living” (Gen. 3:20).
b. To Abstain from Eating of the Fruit. This fruit was of the tree of the knowledge of Good and Evil. “The LORD God commanded the man saying, Of every tree of the garden thou may freely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eat thereof thou shalt surely die” (Gen. 2: 16, 17).
They were allowed to eat freely, as there was plenty. There was only one tree forbidden them. We do not know what kind of fruit it was. Nothing was wrong with the fruit; there was just God’s prohibition behind it. God wanted Adam and Eve to have knowledge, but he did not want them to gain it by disobedience. Re-member, man had been placed on his guard; he had been warned of the enemy; Satan did not come in unawares. This being true, why did God allow Adam and Eve to be subjected to the attack of the Devil? Testing always comes before a blessing. Man always has to be tried before he is promoted.
a.要生养众多遍满地面、治理这地。（创世记1:28） “神就赐福给他们、又对他们说、要生养众多、遍满地面、治理这地．”（创1:28）。亚当是第一个人：（哥林多前书15:45）“首先的人亚当、成了有灵的活人。”。夏娃是所有人类之母。 “亚当给他妻子起名叫夏娃、因为她是众生之母“（创世记3:20）。
E. His Leadership.
The entire human race comes from that one man, Adam. As is the head, so are the descendants.
1. Ethnography. This is the branch of anthropology that considers man geographically and descriptively, treating of the subdivision of races, the causes of migration, and related matters.This science points to a common homeland — Armenia.
2. Comparative Philology. This is the science of language, and it considers that men all come from the same origin.
3. Psychology. This is the science of the mind, and it also indicates that man comes from one origin.
4. Physiology. This is the science that deals with the organic structure of the body, and it declares that all men come from the same source, a common origin.
1.种族学。这是人类学的一个分支，是从地理上和旁证上看待人类种族的细分`迁徙的原因和有关事件的，人类学的一个分支。这个科学指向一个共同的家园 – 亚美尼亚平原。
II. MAN IN HIS STATE OF SIN
A. The Fall of Man.
Some may say that the fall of man is an old Babylonian fable, but we have only to look upon man and see him toil for his bread, weaken in his diseases, and die in his misery, to realize that he has had a fall. “By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Rom. 5:12).
1. The Source of Sin. “Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?” (Gen. 3: 1). “I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ” (II Cor. 11:3). God is not speaking about a beast when He mentions the serpent, but a person. Notice that the Scripture does not say, “more subtle than any other beast of the field,” but leaves out the word “other,” stating only that he is more subtle than any beast. This is merely a statement of what God thinks of the Devil. Nowhere in Scripture does it state that the Devil was in the serpent, but it does say that the serpent was the Devil. “He laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years” (Rev. 20:2).
1.罪的来源。（创世记3:1） “耶和华 神所造的、惟有蛇比田野一切的活物更狡猾。蛇对女人说、 神岂是真说、不许你们吃园中所有树上的果子麽。？“。（哥林多后书11：3） “我只怕你们的心或偏于邪、失去那向基督所存纯一清洁的心、就像蛇用诡诈诱惑了夏娃一样。”。当神论到蛇的时候，祂并不是在说一隻野兽而是在说一个人。请注意，圣经没有说“比田野其他一切的活物更狡猾”；这个词“其他”并不在句子裡，只说‘比田野一切的活物更狡猾’。这仅仅是神认为魔鬼是什麽‘东西’的一个陈述。圣经没有任何一处记载说魔鬼是在蛇裡面，但圣经确实有说古蛇就是魔鬼。（启示录20:2） “他（天使）捉住那龙、就是古蛇、又叫魔鬼、也叫撒但、把他捆绑一千年”。
2. The Nature of Sin. “The serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat” (Gen. 3:4-6). Now the fruit was all right; it was good fruit, with only the prohibition of God behind it. Some people may contend that it was a small thing to bring about man’s downfall, but we ask the question, “How many steps does it take to fall off a bluff?”
a. He Doubted God’s Love. In doubting God’s love, man denied God’s goodness, and acted apart from God and became a sinner. “There is a way which seems right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death” (Prov. 14:12). See also Isaiah 55:6.
b. He Doubted God’s Word. In doubting God’s Word, man denied His Truth; denying His Truth, he acted in spite of God and became a criminal. “Whosoever committee sin transgresses also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law” (I John 3:4).
c. He Doubted God’s Authority. In doubting God’s authority, man denied God’s deity; denying His deity, he became contrary to God. Thus, he became God’s enemy and a rebel in God’s universe. “The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God” (Rom. 8:7, 8).
The testing was given to see if man would stay true to God. He failed because he wanted to be a god. The Devil himself fell (Is. 14), because he wanted to be like the Most High God. This brought about his downfall, so he planted the same seed of false ambition in Adam and Eve to see if it would bring about their downfall, and it did.
Some may ask, “Was this fair to them?” They were warned and placed on guard against Satan. There was only one prohibition in the garden. They did not need the fruit; they lacked nothing.
2.罪的本质。（创3:4-6） “蛇对女人说、你们不一定死、因为 神知道、你们喫的日子眼睛就明亮了、你们便如 神能知道善恶。 于是女人见那棵树的果子好作食物、也悦人的眼目、且是可喜爱的、能使人有智慧、就摘下果子来吃了．又给他丈夫、他丈夫也吃了”。那水果还可以;它是好果子，只是背后有神的禁止。有些人可能会抗议那是小事，不能因此就造成人类的跌倒堕落。但我们要问的是：“人掉落断崖需要多少的步骤呢？”
c.他怀疑了神的权柄。在怀疑上帝的权柄时，人就否认了上帝的神性; 一旦否认了上帝的神性，他就变得与上帝相悖。因此，他成为与上帝为敌的，在上帝的宇宙中成为反抗上帝的。（罗马书8:7,8） “原来体贴肉体、就是与 神为仇．因为不服 神的律法、也是不能服。而且属肉体的人、不能得 神的喜欢。“
有些人可能会问，“这对于亚当与夏娃他们公平吗？” 我的答桉是：他们被安置在园子裡守卫，并且事先警告他们要提防撒旦。在园子裡所有的果子都可以吃，只有一种果子神禁止他们吃。他们并不需要吃那禁果的; 因为他们根本什麽都不缺的。
3. The Effects of Sin.
a. Immediate Effects Upon Eve.
(1) Shame. “They both were naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons” (Gen. 2:25; 3:7). God himself is clothed with a garment of light (Ps. 104:2); and when He made man, he made him in His own image and likeness. Thus, we believe that man also was clothed with a garment of light. When man sinned, that clothing of light was lost, and he made himself a fig leaf covering to take the place of that which was lost. Ever since, man has tried to put on what God once gave him, but he has nothing but filthy rags.
(2) Fear. “He said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself” (Gen. 3:10). Man still tries to hide from God.
(3) Separation from God. There is no doubt that man lost his perfect nature and ended his fellowship with God. There is no such thing as the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man of the natural man, the unsaved man.
(4) Expulsion from the Garden. “The LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the end of the garden of Eden cherubims, and a flaming sword, which turned every way to keep the way of the tree of life” (Gen. 3:23, 24). Man was driven out.
(5) Lost Lordship Over Creation. In the beginning Adam was indeed the ruler of all earthly creatures: “Thou made him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beast of the field; the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever pass through the paths of the sea” (Ps. 8:6-8). This is not true of man today. He has lost that lordship. Christ will return it to man when He comes again (Heb. 2 and Is. 11).
b. Remote Effects Upon Adam’s Posterity.
(1) The Spirit is Darkened. “This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart” (Eph. 4:17, 18). The darkened room of understanding will remain darkened until the Holy Spirit comes in to illuminate.
(2) The Soul Is Debased arid Corrupt. Unbelievers, “being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness to work all uncleanness with greediness” (Eph. 4:19). See also Jeremiah 17:9.
(3) The Body Is Subjected to Disease and Death. “The creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God” (Rom. 8:21).
（4）被赶出伊甸园。 “ 耶和华 神就把他赶出伊甸园，去耕种他自己也是从那里出来的地土。于是把亚当驱逐出去，又派基路伯在伊甸园的东边，拿着旋转发火焰的剑，把守到生命树去的路。”（创世记3:23,24）。人被赶出去了。
（1）灵，黑暗昏昧了。（以弗所书4:17,18） “所以我说、且在主裡确实的说、你们行事、不要再像外邦人存虚妄的心行事．他们心地昏昧、与 神所赐的生命隔绝了、都因自己无知、心裡刚硬”。黑暗昏昧的认知空间会持续的昏暗直到圣灵进入,照亮它为止。
（3）体，在疾病和死亡的辖制下。 “受造的万物仍然指望脱离败坏的辖制、得享 神儿女自由的荣耀。”（罗马书8:21）。
4. The Effects on Sin.
a. The Immediate Expression of God’s Judgment.
(1) On the Serpent. “The LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: and I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:14, 15). Satan, in all of his majesty, is considered nothing but a serpent. This is a figure of speech, for we know that snakes do not eat dust. God’s decree unto the serpent that he should eat dust all the days of his life, showed the contempt in which He held the Devil.
(2) On the Woman. “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee” (Gen. 3:16).
(3) On Creation. “Unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field” (Gen. 3:17, 18).
(4) On Man. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return” (Gen. 3:19). See also Genesis 5:29.
b. The Future Expression of God’s Judgment. “The fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolators, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death” (Rev. 21:8).
（2）对女人的审判。 “耶和华 神对女人说、我必多多加增你怀胎的苦楚、你生产儿女必多受苦楚．你必恋慕你丈夫、你丈夫必管辖你“。（创世记3:16）
（3）对受造物的审判。 “耶和华 神对亚当说、你既听从妻子的话、喫了我所吩咐你不可喫的那树上的果子、地必为你的缘故受咒诅．你必终身劳苦、纔能从地裡得喫的。地必给你长出荆棘和蒺藜来、你也要喫田间的菜蔬。“（创世记3:17,18）。
b.神表达的将来审判。（启示录 21:8） “惟有胆怯的`不信的`可憎的`杀人的`淫乱的`行邪术的`拜偶像的、和一切说谎话的,他们的分就在烧着硫磺的火湖裡．这是第二次的死。”。
5. The Provision for the Sinner. “I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15). In the hour that man sinned, God promised a Redeemer. The Seed of the woman is no one else but Jesus Christ. “Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skin, and clothe them” (Gen. 3:21). When they realized their nakedness, they covered themselves with aprons of fig leaves. God clothed them with animal skins instead. As far as covering their nakedness was concerned, fig leaves were as good as animal skins; however, blood had to be spilt — “For without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sin.” They had to be covered with that which was slain for their sins. Likewise, the sinner today has to be clothed with the righteousness of Him who died for them.
5.为罪人所预备的。（创世记3:15） “我又要叫你和女人彼此为仇、你的后裔和女人的后裔、也彼此为仇．女人的后裔要伤你的头、你要伤他的脚跟。”。在人犯罪的那个时刻，神应许要给人一位救赎主。女人的后裔，指的不是别人，正是耶稣基督。（创3:21） “耶和华 神为亚当和他妻子用皮子作衣服、给他们穿。”。当他们意识到自己的赤身露体时，他们用无花果的叶子遮掩自己。而神用动物的皮做衣服给他们穿。对于遮盖他们的赤身裸体而言，无花果的树叶与动物的皮是一样好用的;然而，血必须要被洒 – “因为若没有流血，就没有罪的赦免”。他们必须被那些为他们的罪而被杀之祭物的血所遮盖。
B. The Fallen Sons of Adam.
1. Their Standing.
a. In Adam. “Since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (I Cor. 15:21, 22). See also I Corinthians 15:45, 47; Romans 5:12-21. There are only two representative men in the world: the first man and the second man; the first Adam and the last Adam. All men are born in Adam; all born-again men are in Christ.
b. Of Sin and Guilt. “What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin, as it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one” (Rom. 3:9, 10). See also Romans 3:19.
2. Their State. By their state we mean their spiritual condition; that is, the absence of righteousness in their spiritual life.
a. Sinful in Nature. “Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me” (Ps. 51:5). See also Ephesians 2:3; Genesis 6:5; Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 8:7; Galatians 5:19-21.
b. Sinful in Practice. “We ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another” (Titus 3:3). See also Romans 3:23; Colossians 1:21; Psalm 14:1-3.
c. Lost in Sin. “The Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:10). See also Isaiah 53:6; II Corinthians 4:3, 4.
d. Spiritually Dead. “You hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins…Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, by grace are ye saved” (Eph. 2: 1, 5). God’s picture of a sinner is a dead man, a man with all of the organs of movement, but no motion. Likewise, the sinner cannot move in the things of God.
e. Under God’s Wrath. “The wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness” (Rom. 1:18). See also John 3:36.
f. Waits for Death. “It is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment (Heb. 9:27).
g. Sure of Hell. “Whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire” (Rev. 20:15). See also Revelation 21:8.
a.是在亚当裡。 “死既是因一人而来、死人复活也是因一人而来。在亚当裡众人都死了．照样、在基督裡众人也都要复活。”（哥林多前书15:21,22）。另见哥林多前书15:45,47;罗马书5:12-21。世界上只有两个代表人物：首先的人和末后的人; 首先的亚当和末后的亚当。所有人都肉生到亚当裡; 所有重生的人都进入基督裡。
a.在本性上是有罪的。（诗篇51:5） “我是在罪孽裡生的．在我母亲怀胎的时候、就有了罪。”。以弗所书2:3; 创世纪6:5; 耶利米书17:9; 罗马书8:7; 加拉太书5:19-21。
b.在本性上是有罪的。 “我们从前也是无知`悖逆`受迷惑`服事各样私慾和宴乐`常存恶毒嫉妒的心`是可恨的`又是彼此相恨。”（提多书3:3）。另见罗马书3:23 ;歌罗西书1:21; 诗篇14:1-3。
c.在罪中失丧了。（路加福音19:10） “人子来、为要寻找拯救失丧的人”。参见以赛亚书53:6; 哥林多后书4:3-4。
e.在神的忿怒下。（罗马书1:18） “原来 神的忿怒、从天上显明在一切不虔不义的人身上、就是那些行不义阻挡真理的人”。另见约翰福音3:36。
g.下地狱的确定 。（启示录20:15） “若有人名字没记在生命册上、他就被扔在火湖裡”。另见启示录21:8。
III. MAN IN HIS STATE OF GRACE
A. His Standing.
1. In Christ. As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (I Cor. 15:22). See also I Corinthians 15:21, 45, 47; Romans 5:12-21.
2. Of Perfection. “According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love. . . . To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved” (Eph. 1:4, 6). There are no charges against the Head; and, as that is so, there can be no charges against the Body.
2.算為完美無瑕疵的。 “就如 神从创立世界以前、在基督裡拣选了我们、使我们在他面前成为圣洁、无有瑕疵. . . .使他荣耀的恩典得着称讚．这恩典是他在爱子裡所赐给我们的。”（以弗所书1:4,6）。而且，就这样，对于头没有了指控; 对于身体也不会有任何指控了。
B. His State.
By this we mean his spiritual condition. This differs from the life of the unbeliever. In the believer’s life righteousness is present — the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ.
1. A New Creature. “If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away, behold, all things are become new” (II Cor. 5:17). See also 11 Peter 1:4; Galatians 6:15; John 3:16. Regeneration is a re-creation. Only God can create; only God can re-create.
2. Saved. “Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began” (Il Tim. 1:9). See also Ephesians 2:8,9.
3. Dead Unto Sin. “Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom. 6:11). “Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed” (I Peter 2:24).
4. Child of God. “As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name” (John 1:12). “Ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:26).
5. Under God’s Favor. “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ” (Eph. 1:3). See also Romans 5:2.
6. Waits for God and Glory. “Our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able to subdue all things unto himself” (Phil. 3:20,21).
7. Sure of Heaven. “The Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen” (II Tim. 4:18). See also I Peter 1:4.
这意味着他的属灵情况。这与不信主之人的生命是有不同的。在信徒的生命中，有义在其中 – 主耶稣基督的义。
1.一个新造的人。 （哥林多后书5:17）“如果有人在基督裡，他就是一个新造的人：旧事已过，所有的事物都变成新的了”。又见彼得前书1:4; 加拉太书6:15; 约翰福音3:16。重生是一种重新再造。只有神才能创造;只有神才能重新再造。
3.向罪是死的。（罗马书6:11） “这样、你们向罪也当看自己是死的．向 神在基督耶稣裡、却当看自己是活的”。 （彼得前书2:24）“他被挂在木头上亲身担当了我们的罪、使我们既然在罪上死、就得以在义上活．因他受的鞭伤、你们便得了医治。”。
4.是神的儿女。 （约翰福音1:12）“凡接待祂的、就是信他名的人、祂就赐他们权柄、作 神的儿女。”。（加拉太书3:26） “因信基督耶稣，你们都是神的儿女”。
5.蒙神的恩惠。（以弗所书1:3 新译本） “我们主耶稣基督的父 神是应当称颂的。他在基督里，曾经把天上各种属灵的福分赐给我们”。另见罗马书5:2。
6.等候神与荣耀。（腓利比 3:20-21） “我们却是天上的国民．并且等候救主`就是主耶稣基督`从天上降临。他要按着那能叫万有归服自己的大能、将我们这卑贱的身体改变形状、和他自己荣耀的身体相似。”
C. His Two Natures.
“The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would” (Gal. 5:17). The above Scriptures could not describe anyone but a saved man. The sinner has but one nature; the child of God has two natures. Every true believer has experienced the warfare of which Paul speaks. This warfare is best demonstrated by the household of Abraham. He had two sons — Ishmael, the older; and Isaac, the younger. Ishmael stands for that born of the flesh, while Isaac stands for that born of the Spirit. The trouble started when Isaac came into the household. Trouble comes into a Christian’s life when Christ enters in.
“肉体情慾和圣灵相争、圣灵和肉体情慾相争．这两个是彼此相敌、使你们不能作所愿意作的。”（加5:17）。上述经文是描述得救的人；除了得救的人之外，上述经文无法描述任何人。罪人只有一种本性;而神的儿女有两种本性。每个真正的信徒都会经历过保罗所说的争战。这个争战在亚伯拉罕的家庭裡最能看到例证。亚伯拉罕有两个儿子 – 年长的以实玛利;与年幼的以撒。以实玛利代表从肉体生的，而以撒则代表从圣灵生的。这争战就开始于 从以撒出生到这家庭之时开始。当基督进入你的生命，属灵生命与肉体情慾的争战就在基督徒的生命中开始了。
1. The Description of the Old Nature.
a. Names and Characteristics.
(1) The Flesh. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh” (John 3:6). See also Romans 7:18, 23; 8:9. By “the flesh” we do not mean “muscles and sinews,” which are part of the human body, but rather the carnal nature, which all possess at birth. There is no such thing as our being in the flesh; the flesh is in us. No man has ever begotten an unfallen man. “For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwell no good thing” (Rom. 7:18a). See also John 6:63; Romans 8:8. There is no such thing as a person being born with a “divine spark” within them.
(2) The Natural Man. “The natural man receive not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (I Cor. 2:14). This is what man is by nature, by his natural birth.
(3) The Old Man. “Our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin” (Rom. 6:6). See also Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9. This is the man of old — what we once were: corrupt, full of evil desires and lusts.
(4) The Outward Man. “Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day” (II Cor. 4:16).
(5) The Heart. “From within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: all these evil things come from within, and defile the man” (Mark 7:21-23). We hear so much of man having a change of heart, but this is impossible, for only God can give a new heart.
(6) The Carnal Mind. “The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be” (Rom. 8:7).
(7) Sin. “By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Rom. 5:12). The word “sin” refers to the fallen nature of man, while “sins” refer to the actions of this nature.
b. The Character and End.
(1) It Is an Adam’s Nature. This means that Adam fell, and his children are, therefore, fallen children of a fallen father.
(2) It Is an Inherited Nature. We receive our fallen nature from Adam.
(3) It Is an Evil Nature. The eighth chapter of Romans is a commentary on this point.
(4) It Is an Unchangeable Nature. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh” (John 3:6a). As long as man lives, that fallen nature remains in him. It will be eradicated only at the resurrection of the dead in Christ, and the transformation of those alive in Christ, at His second appearing.
(5) Its End Is Death. “The wages of sin is death” (Rom. 6:23a). See also Romans 8:5-13.
（1）肉体。 “从肉身生的就是肉身”（约翰福音3：6）。另见罗马书7:18,23; 8:9。讲到过“肉身”，我们所指的意思并不是“肌肉和肌腱”，那些人体的一部分，而是血气肉体的本性，这些都是从出生时就带来的。没有我们在肉体中存在这件事; 而是肉体在我们裡面。所有人所生出的都是在堕落本性裡的人，没有一个不是的。 “因为我知道在我裡面（就是我的肉体），没有好处我也知道、在我裡头、就是我肉体之中、没有良善．”（罗马书7:18a）。参见约翰福音6:63; 罗马书8:8。没有一个人生来，在他们裡面就带着有“神圣的火花” 这件事。
（2）属血气的人。 “然而属血气的人不领会 神圣灵的事、反倒以为愚拙．并且不能知道、因为这些事惟有属灵的人纔能看透。”（林前2:14）。因着本性人就是这样，天生就是属血气。
（3）旧人。 “因为知道我们的旧人`和祂同钉十字架`使罪身灭绝`叫我们不再作罪的奴僕”（罗马书6:6）。以弗所书4:22; 歌罗西书3:9。这是一个旧的人 – 我们曾经是这样的人：腐败，充满了邪恶的慾望和情慾。
（4）外面的人。 “所以，我们并不沮丧，我们外面的人虽然渐渐朽坏，但里面的人却日日更新，”（哥林多后书4:16 新译本）。
（6）以肉体为念。 “因为以肉体为念就是与 神为仇，既不服从 神的律法，也的确不能够服从；”（罗马书8:7 新译本）。
（7）罪。 “正好像罪借着一个人入了世界，死又是从罪来的，所以死就临到全人类，因为人人都犯了罪“（罗马书5:12）。 “罪”这个词指的是人的堕落本性，而“罪行”指的是这罪之本性的行为。
2. The Description of the New Nature.
a. Its Names and Characteristics.
(1) Spirit. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit” (John 3:6).
(2) Divine Nature. There “are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the correction that is in the world through lust” (II Peter 1:4). See also I John 3:9; 5:18, 19.
(3) The New Man. “Put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness” (Eph. 4:24). See also Colossians 3:10; II Corinthians 5:17.
(4) The Inward Man. “Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day” (II Cor. 4:16). “I delight in the law of God after the inward man” (Rom. 7:22). See also Ephesians 3:16.
(5) Mind. “I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God: but with the flesh the law of sin” (Rom. 7:25).
b. Its Character and End.
(1) It Is a Christly Nature.
(2) It Is An Imported Nature..
(3) It Is a Holy Nature.
(4) It Is an Unchangeable Nature.
(5) It Is Non-forfeited Nature.
Verses 1 and 2 of I John 2 ‘speak of the relation of the saint with the Father. Even when the saint sins it is a family matter.
(6) It’s End is Resurrection and Rapture. “Behold, I shew you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal shall put on immortality… But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ (I Cor. 15:51-53, 57).
（2）神的本性。 “接着这些，他把又宝贵又极大的应许赐给了我们，好叫你们既然逃脱世上因私欲而来的败坏，就可以分享 神的本性。”（彼得后书1:4）。另见约翰一书3:9; 5:18,19。
（3）新人。 “并且穿上新人．这新人是照着 神的形像造的、有真理的仁义、和圣洁。”（以弗所书4:24）。另见歌罗西书3:10; 哥林多后书5:17。
（4）裡面的人。 “我们外在的人虽然渐渐朽坏,但里面的人却日日更新”（哥林多后书4:16）。 “按着我里面的人来说,我是喜欢 神的律”（罗马书7:22）。也见以弗所书3:16。
（5）心灵。 “感谢 神、靠着我们的主耶稣基督…. 这样看来、我以内心顺服 神的律．我肉体却顺服罪的律了。“（罗马书7:25）。
（6）新本性的结局是复活和被提。 “看哪，我如今把一件奥秘的事告诉你们．我们不是都要睡觉、乃是都要改变、就在一霎时、眨眼之间、号筒末次吹响的时候．因号筒要响、死人要复活成为不朽坏的、我们也要改变。这必朽坏的、总要变成不朽坏的．这必死的、总要变成不死的。……感谢 神、使我们藉着我们的主耶稣基督得胜。”（林前15:51-53,57）。
3. The Conflict Between the Two Natures.
a. The Believer’s Experience. Every child of God has two natures; the unsaved man has only one nature. The old nature cannot be eradicated while the believer lives in the flesh; therefore, we have the fight between the old and new natures. “The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would” (Gal. 5: 17). Romans 7:15-25 is another marvelous example illustrating this truth. However, someone may declare that this passage shows the conflict in Paul’s life before he was saved, but one verse in this passage clearly reveals that this conflict, so vividly described, occurred after he was saved: “I delight in the law of God after the inward man” (Rom. 7:22). No unsaved man ever delights after the law of God. Also, only the saved man has the inward man,which is the new nature.
b. The Believer’s Responsibility.
(1) In Relation To the Old Nature.
(a) Accept God’s Estimate of It. “Our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. For he that is dead is freed from sin. Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him: knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom.6:6-11). This one truth must be pointed out: the old man is never said to be crucified in the believer, but is crucified with Christ. It is a reality! Accept it! It is not a matter of feeling, but one of faith. All of this truth is according to God’s view. As for the believer’s view, he knows that the old nature, the old man, is not dead; he is very much alive. The Scripture says, “Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin.” If the old nature were actually dead, the believer would not have to reckon him so; he would know.
(b) Make No Provision for the Flesh. “Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof (Rom.13:14). In other words, do not feed the flesh. Starve it.
(c) Mortify the Flesh. “Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry” (Col. 3:5). A stronger term is, “Put to death, therefore, your members.” The words “as good as dead” (Heb. 11:12) are the same terminology.
(d) Never Try to Improve It. “Neither yield your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God” (Rom. 6:13).
(e) Put It Off. “Put off concerning the form of conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts” (Eph. 4:22). The same word is translated “laid down” in Acts 7:58.
(2) In Relation to the New Nature.
(a) Reckon Ourselves to Be Alive. “Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom. 6:11).
(b) Walk in Newness of Life. “We are his workmanship, created unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them” (Eph. 2:10). See also Romans 6:14; 7:6.
(c) Feed and Nourish It. “As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby” (I Peter 2:2). We are to feed the new nature by the exposition of the Word, and not by the exhortation of man. We know we have two natures, and it is well to consider that the food for one will starve the other. It is the individual Christian who must decide which man, the old or the new, shall be fed. He cannot feed both at the same time.
(d) Put On the New Man. “Put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness” (Eph. 4:24).
(e) Depend Upon the Indwelling Spirit for Power. “Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption” (Eph. 4:30). “My brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might” (Eph. 6:10). “Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the LORD of hosts” (Zech. 4:6b).
a.信徒的经历。神的每一个孩子都有两种本性;未得救的人只有一种本性。当信徒在肉体裡面而活时，旧的老我本性是无法被根除的; 因此，我们会有新本性与旧本性之间的相互争战。（加拉太书5:17） “因为肉体情慾和圣灵相争、圣灵和肉体情慾相争．这两个是彼此相敌、使你们不能作所愿意作的。”。罗马书7:15-25是另一个很棒的例子，说明了这个真理。然而，有人可能会宣称这段经文显示的是保罗在他得救之前，生活中的冲突；但这段经文中有一节经文清楚的揭示出，这个如此生动被描述出来的冲突，是在他得救之后才发生的，即（罗马书7:22）：“因为按着我裡面的人，我是喜欢 神的律．”。从来没有未得救的人会喜欢神的律的。而且，只有得救后的人才有‘裡面的人’，这是在得救之后才有的新本性。
（a）接受神对它的称量。 “ “因为知道我们的旧人和他同钉十字架，使罪身灭绝，叫我们不再作罪的奴仆。因为已死的人，是脱离了罪。我们若是与基督同死，就信必与他同活。因为知道基督既从死里复活，就不再死，死也不再作他的主了。他死是向罪死了，只有一次。他活是向神活着。这样，你们向罪也当看自己是死的。向神在基督耶稣里却当看自己是活的。”（罗马书6:6-11）。这一个真理必须被指出来：圣经从未说旧人要被钉十字架，而是说已经与基督同钉十字架了。这是个现实！你要接受！这不是与感觉有关的事，而是与信仰有关的。所有这些真理都是根据神的观点。至于从信徒的观点来看，信徒知道自己老我本性-旧人，并没有死; 他的老我非常活跃。而圣经说：“你们向罪也当看自己是死的。” （罗马书6:11) 如果旧的本性已经实际上死了，那麽信徒就不必这麽努力的要把自己的旧人当成是死了那样。他自然会知道的。
（c）治死肉体。 “所以要治死你们在地上的肢体．就如淫乱、污秽、邪情、恶慾、和贪婪、贪婪就与拜偶像一样。“（歌罗西书3：5）。这个强有力的说法，“治死你的肢体。” 与（希伯来书11:12）的“彷彿已死” 是带有相同意思的词彙。
（d）绝不要试图去改善旧本性。 “不要将你们的肢体献给罪作不义的器具．倒要像从死裡复活的人、将自己献给 神．并将肢体作义的器具献给 神。”（罗马书6:13）。
（a）看自己是活的。 “你们向罪也当看自己是死的．向 神在基督耶稣裡、却当看自己是活的。”（罗马书6:11）。
（b）在新生命裡行事为人。 “我们原是祂的工作、在基督耶稣裡造成的、为要叫我们行善、就是 神所预备叫我们行的。”（以弗所书2:10）。另见罗马书6:14; 7:6。
（c）喂养新本性。 “就要爱慕那纯淨的灵奶、像才生的婴孩爱慕奶一样、叫你们因此渐长、以致得救．”（彼得前书2:2）。我们要通过圣经的话语来喂养新的本性，而不是通过人的劝勉来喂养新的本性。我们知道我们有两种本性，要好好思考，将食物喂养其中的一种本性会造成另一种本性的挨饿。每一个基督徒必须决定要喂养你自己的哪种人- 是旧人还是新人。他不能同时喂两个本性。
（d）穿上新人。（以弗所书4:24） “并且穿上新人。这新人是照着 神的形像造的、有真理的仁义、和圣洁。”。
（e）依靠内住的灵得能力。 “不要叫 神的圣灵担忧。你们原是受了他的印记、等候得赎的日子来到。”（以弗所书4:30）。 “弟兄们， 你们要靠着主、倚赖他的大能大力、作刚强的人。”（以弗所书6:10）。 “万军之耶和华说、不是倚靠势力、不是倚靠才能、乃是倚靠我的灵、方能成事”（撒迦利亚书4:6b）。