教会论 Ecclesiology – 论到教会的教义
圣经教义 – 有关的重要信仰
作者： 马可. 康布隆 神学博士 Mark G. Cambron, D.D.
OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER VII 第七章 教会论的大纲
I. The Meaning of the Word. 壹. 教会这词的意思。
II. The Use of the Word. 贰. 教会这词的使用
III. What the Church Is Not. 叁. 教会不是什麽。
IV. What the Church Is. 肆. 教会是什麽。
A. A Mystery. 教会是一个奥秘。
B. A Body. 教会是一个身体。
C. A Building. 教会是个建造。
D. A Bride. 教会是主的新妇。
V. The Gifts to the Body. 伍. 神给基督身体-教会的恩赐
VI. The Local Church. 陆. 地方的教会
VII. Discipline in the Church. 柒.教会裡的管教
VIII. Ordinances in the Church. 捌. 教會里的條令
A. Baptism. 洗礼
B. Lord’s Supper. 主的晚餐/圣餐/
Chapter VII 第七章
Ecclesiology is the doctrine of the Church.
I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD
The word “church” does not mean the building in which the congregation meets; neither is it as the Catholics say, the Papal system. Others contend that it is a company, or a club, just an organization. The Church is not an organization, but an organism.
The following may surprise most students of the Word, but nevertheless, it is true. The word “church” cannot be found in the New Testament. The word “church,” is a rendition, and not a translation. This same word “church” is a rendition of the word ecclesia, which means a called-out company, or assembly. If we should call Bible things by Bible names correctly, we would call it the assembly of God in Christ, instead of the Church of God in Christ.
The word ecclesia always means a called-out company, or assembly. It refers to all classes of people; it is not limited to believers in Christ. There are three references in the Bible that refer to three different kinds of people. None of them are related, yet they are called-out companies, or assemblies.
以下的内容可能会让大多数的神学生对圣经感到惊讶，但即便如此，这是真的。在新约圣经的原文找不到“church”这个词。 “Church (教会)”这词是一个描述，而不是翻译。“Church（教会）”这名词是对原文ecclesia这个字的描述，其意思为被呼召出来的一群人或会众。如果我们要正确地用圣经名称来称圣经事物的话，我们会称它为‘神在基督裡召来的会众’，而不是‘神在基督裡的教会’。
A. A Mob.
“When Paul would have entered in unto the people, the disciples suffered him not, And certain of the chief of Asia, which were his friends, sent unto him, desiring him that he would not adventure himself to the theater. Some therefore cried one thing, and some another: for the assembly[ecclesia: that is a mob, and not believers] was confused; and the more part knew not wherefore they were come together…And when the townclerk had appeased the people, he said. . . . Ye have brought hither these men, which are neither robbers of churches [this word means temple; it is not from the word ecclesia], nor yet blasphemers of your goddess. . . . But if ye inquire anything concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly [this is the same wordecclesia, and does not mean believers] . . . . And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed theassembly [again the word ecclesia]” (Acts19:30-32, 35, 37, 39, 41).
使徒行传19章“保罗想要进去、到百姓那裡、门徒却不许他去。还有亚西亚几位首领、是保罗的朋友、打发人来劝他、不要冒险到剧场裡去。聚集的人[ecclesia：那是一群人，而不是信徒]、纷纷乱乱、有喊叫这个的、有喊叫那个的、大半不知道是为甚麽聚集。…. 那城裡的书记、安抚了众人、就说…你们把这些人带来、他们并不是偷窃神庙[church这字的意思为temple庙堂;它并不是来自于ecclesia这个字] 之物的劫匪、也没有谤讟你们的女神。… 你们若问别的事、就应该在一个合法的集会[这与ecclesia是同一个字，并不代表信徒]中谋求解决。…. 说了这话、便叫众人散去[再一次的，这裡的众人，其原文是ecclesia这字] ”（使徒行传19:30-32,35,37,39,41）。
B. The Children of Israel.
Certainly the children of Israel were a called-out company from Egypt, but we know that they were not the body of Christ. Christ had not been manifested in the flesh as yet. “This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers who received the lively oracles to give unto us” (Acts 7:38).
C. The Body of Christ.
By this we mean the body of believers in the Lord Jesus. The New Testament abounds with references to the ecclesia, the called-out company, or assembly, from the world to Christ. The following are a few: God “hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church [ecclesia, meaning called-out company, or assembly], which is his body, thefulness of him that filleth all in all” (Eph. 1:22, 23). “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church [ecclesia, meaning called-out company or assembly], and gave himself for it. . . . This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church [ecclesia, meaning called-out company, or assembly]” (Eph. 5:25, 32).
II. THE USE OF THE WORD
Knowing that the word “church” is a rendition from the Greek, ecclesia, meaning called-out company, or assembly, we shall turn our attention to those portions of Scripture dealing with the body of believers. The word ecclesia is used in the following ways:
知道了“教会”这个词是从希腊文ecclesia 这字的诠释而来-‘意思是被召唤出来的一群人或召会’之后，我们就要把注意转到圣经裡谈到信众群体的那些经文上了。 ecclesia这个字在底下的几个情况下被使用：
A. A Local Assembly (church).
“Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians….” (I Thess. 1:1). “Unto the church of God which is at Corinth . . .“ (I Cor. 1:2).
B. Local Assemblies (churches).
This has reference to several local bodies. “Paul . . . and all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia: Grace be to you and peace” (Gal. 1:1-3).
C. The Body of Living Believers (unnumbered).
We must explain that by this we mean a group of believers, living in a certain section, without reference to a local assembly, and without number. For instance, a minister may speak of theChurch of Chicago, the Church of Denver, etc. we immediately know that he is referring to all Christian believers in these cities. The best illustration in the Word is: “Ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews’ religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the churchof God, and wasted it” (Gal. 1:13). Saul (Paul) did not limit his persecution to one certain assembly, or several local assemblies. He went everywhere, hailing into prison, and voting the death penalty for the early Christians. He considered all Christians as The Church.
D. The Complete Body of Christ.
The complete body of Christ is called the Church, and is composed of all believers from Pentecost to the Rapture. “Husbands, love your wives even as Christ also loved the church, and gave Himself for it” (Eph. 5:25).
“保罗`西拉`提摩太、写信给帖撒罗尼迦在父 神和主耶稣基督裡的教会. . .”（帖撒罗尼迦前书1:1）。 ““写信给哥林多 神的教会. . . .”（哥林多前书1:2）。
这经文有提到几个地方团体。如（加拉太书1:1-3） “作使徒的保罗…和一切与我同在的众弟兄、写信给加拉太的各教会。愿恩惠平安… 归与你们。”。
III. WHAT THE CHURCH IS NOT
A. The Church Is Not Israel.
“Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God” (I Cor. 10:32). Here is revealed that there are three classes of people today: Jew, Gentile and Church. When a Jew is saved, he ceases to be a Jew, and becomes a Christian. When a Gentile accepts Christ, he ceases to be a Gentile, and becomes a Christian. “As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:27-29). The Church (Body of Christ) is not spiritual Israel: “He is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twainone new man, so making peace” (Eph. 2:14, 15). The Body of Christ (Church) is a new man, and not Israel, whether spiritual Israel or revived Israel.
（哥林多前书10:32）“不拘是犹太人、是希利尼人、是 神的教会、你们都不要使他跌倒”。在这裡就透露出当今有三类人：犹太人，外邦人和教会。当一个犹太人得救之后，他就不再是犹太人了，而是成为基督徒了。当外邦人接受了主基督，他就不再是外邦人了`他成为基督徒了。（加拉太书3:27-29）说 “你们受洗归入基督的、都是披戴基督了。并不分犹太人、希利尼人、自主的、为奴的、或男或女．因为你们在基督耶稣裡都成为一了。你们既属乎基督、就是亚伯拉罕的后裔、是照着应许承受产业的了”。。。教会（基督的身体）不是属灵的以色列人：“因（耶稣基督）祂使我们和睦〔祂是我们的和睦〕，将两下合而为一、拆毁了中间隔断的牆。而且以自己的身体、废掉冤仇、就是那记在律法上的规条。为要将两下、藉着自己造成一个新人、如此便成就了和睦”（以弗所书2:14-15）。基督的身体（教会）是新造的人，而不是以色列人，无论是属灵的以色列人还是被更新了的以色列人。
B. The Church Is Not the Kingdom.
1. No heirs of the Church.
2. No receiver of the Church.
3. There are elders of the Church.
4. No Sons of the Church.
5. Church called a temple (Eph. 2:21).
6. Church is here.
7. Church was never a subject of prophecy (Eph. 3: 5,9).
8. Church is to be built up (Eph. 4:12).
1. The Church is heir of the kingdom.
2. The Church is the receiver of the kingdom.
3. No elders of the kingdom.
4. Sons of the kingdom.
5. Kingdom never called a temple.
6. Kingdom is not here, for the King is not present (Matt. 6:10).
7. Kingdom is the one subject of prophecy.
8. Kingdom is to be set up (Acts 15:16).
IV. WHAT THE CHURCH IS
A. It Is a Mystery.
“By revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit; that the Gentiles should be fellow heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel. . . . And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ” (Eph. 3:3-6,9). A “mystery” in Scripture means a “truth revealed for the first time.” In the above verses, the Holy Spirit shows us that The Church (Body of Christ) was first revealed to the Apostle Paul, and that it was not known by the Old Testament prophets. The truth of The Church was not hidden in Old Testament writings, but was hid in God.
（以弗所书3:3-6,9）“藉着启示使我可以知道这奥秘，(就像我以前在信中略略提过的。你们读了，就可以知道我深深地明白基督的奥秘。) 这奥秘在以前的世代并没有让世人知道，不像现在藉着圣灵启示了圣使徒和先知那样。这奥秘就是外族人在基督耶稣里，藉着福音可以同作后嗣，同为一体，同蒙应许. . . . 又使众人都明白、这历代以来隐藏在创造万物之神裡的奥秘、是如何安排的“（以弗所书3:3-6,9）。经文裡说的一个“奥秘”意思为一个“真理头一次被启示出来”。在上面的经文中，圣灵告诉我们，教会（基督的身体）最初是被启示给使徒保罗的，而旧约的先知并不知道这奥秘。教会的这真理并不是隐藏在旧约的着作裡面，而是藏在神裡面的。
B. It Is the Body of Which Christ Is the Head.
“As the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many,are one body: so also is (the) Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. For the body is not one member, but many. . . . That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another. And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honored, all the members rejoice with it. Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular” (I Cor. 12:12-14, 25-27).
The Body is an organism composed of many members. All members do not have the same function. The Church is not a physical body, but a spiritual body. Believers in Christ are made members of that spiritual body by the Spirit’s baptism. There are those who hold that I Corinthians 12:13 is speaking of water baptism, but this argument can easily be refuted by another Scripture. I Corinthians 12:13 says that we are made members of the Body by baptism(Spirit’s), while Ephesians 3:6 declares we are made members of that Body by the Gospel. Both are correct. If I Corinthians 12:13 speaks of water baptism, then water baptism is an essential part of the Gospel of Ephesians 3:6. We know, however, that water baptism has no part in the Gospel whatsoever. The Gospel is the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ (I Cor. 15:1-4).
As is true of the physical body, so it is of the spiritual Body; when one member of the Body suffers, all members suffer with it. Not one Christian can suffer persecution without the whole Body hurting also. One member cannot grieve, but that the whole Body grieves with it. When the Body suffers, the Head also suffers. When we are persecuted, Christ is also persecuted: “Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?” (Acts 9:4).
Remember that the Body is an organism and must be considered as such. A building, for example, can be repaired by replacing old doors and windows, and the like, with new ones, but when part of a body is removed, such as an arm, leg, eye, and the like, the part can never be replaced. If it were possible for a member of the Body of Christ to lose his salvation, then the Body of Christ would be mutilated, and this could never happen. The following are four characteristics of the Body of Christ:
1. Oneness. A body is one, a complete whole, an organic unity. So is the Body of Christ.
2. Deathlessness. The Body of Christ will never die, for it is connected with a living Head.
3. Manifestation. The one purpose of the Body of Christ is to manifest, or reveal Christ. “To me to live is Christ, and to die is gain” (Phil. 1:21). “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me” (Gal. 2:20).
4. Service. The thoughts and the plans of the head are to be carried out by the body. Likewise, the Body of Christ is to carry out the will of its Head, the Lord Jesus Christ. What He commands we must do. His will shall govern our movements.
“就如身子是一个、却有许多肢体、而且肢体虽多、仍是一个身子．基督也是这样。我们不拘是犹太人、是希利尼人、是为奴的、是自主的、都从一位圣灵受洗、成了一个身体。饮于一位圣灵。原来身体有许多肢体，并不是只有一个肢体. . . 好使肢体能够互相照顾，免得身体上有了分裂。如果一个肢体受苦，所有的肢体就一同受苦；如果一个肢体得荣耀，所有的肢体就一同快乐。你们就是基督的身体，并且每一个人都是作肢体的。”（歌林多前书12:12-14,25-27）。
3.彰显的。基督身体的一个目的是去彰显`或去显明基督。 “我活着就是基督，我死了就有益处”（腓利比书1:21）。 “我已经与基督同钉十架．现在活着的、不再是我、乃是基督在我裡面活着．并且我如今在肉身活着、是因信 神的儿子而活、他是爱我、为我捨己。”（加拉太书2:20）。
C. It Is a Building.
“Ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God; and are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto a holy temple in the Lord: in whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit” (Eph. 2:19-22).
The apostles and New Testament prophets are the foundation of the Building (Church). They were the first ones to believe in the Lord Jesus, and they were the first ones to proclaim the Lord Jesus.
“Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ” (I Peter 2:5). We believers are living stones of this new building of God. When the temple of old was erected, there was no sound of hammer, chisel, or saw. All materials were formed beforehand. So are we, for we were selected before the foundation of the earth was laid. The inside stones of the temple could not be seen, for they were covered with cedarwood and gold. Only the gold could be seen. We, the living stones of theBuilding of God, are not to be seen. Christ only is to be seen.
The building was erected of different colored stones; even so the Building of God is composed of black, red, yellow and white races. God dwelt in the temple, and He abides in us.
（以弗所书2:19-22）“这样、你们不再作外人、和客旅、是与圣徒同国、是 神家裡的人了．并且被建造在使徒和先知的根基上、有基督耶稣自己为房角石．各房靠他联络得合式、渐渐成为主的圣殿。你们也靠他同被建造成为 神藉着圣灵居住的所在”。
D. It Is the Bride.
Some have contended that the Bride of Christ is the same as the Wife of Jehovah, who is Israel. However, there is one Scripture which disproves this theory, and that is Revelation 22:17: “The Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.” The above passage declares that the Spirit and the Bride are extending the invitation to sinners to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. If the Bride is Israel, then it is the Spirit and Israel extending the invitation. We know that is not true, for the greater part of Israel is in unbelief today. Who is inviting, or urging people to accept Christ? It is the Church, not Israel. Therefore, the Bride is the Church, the Body of believers.
Ephesians 5:25-32 clearly points to the fact that husband and wife have the same relationship as that of Christ and His Bride, the Church. Especially we see this in verses 28-30: “So ought men to love their own wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. For no man ever yet hateth his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the Church: For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.”
有些人争辩说，基督的新妇（新娘）是与耶和华的妻子一样，即以色列。然而，有一节经文证明了这个论点是错误的，那就是启示录22:17：“圣灵和新妇都说来。听见的人也该说 “来”。口渴的人也当来．愿意的都可以白白取生命的水喝“。上述的经文宣布了圣灵和新妇是在邀请罪人来相信主耶稣。可是，如果新妇是以色列的话，那麽就会是圣灵和以色列在发出邀请。但我们知道并不是这样，因为现今大部分的以色列人都不信耶稣基督。那麽，是谁在邀请`敦促人来接受耶稣基督呢？是教会在邀请! 而不是以色列人在邀请。因此，新妇是教会，即全体信徒们。
1. The Bride Is Purchased By Christ. “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it” (Eph. 5:25). See also I Corinthians 6:19, 20. In the Orient men purchased their wives; the price became her dowry. Christ bought his Church with His own precious blood. His blood is her dowry forever!
2. The Bride Is Espoused to Christ. “I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I haveespoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ” (II Cor. 11:2). The Oriental marriage differs greatly from marriage as we know it. The Eastern custom of marriage took place after the following manner: First, the bride was bought (we have been bought by Christ); second, the ceremony was performed, inaugurating the espousal period, which lasted about a year. During this time the bride was considered the wife of her husband, yet they did not live together. The one year waiting period was protection of the future home. If there were any blemishes against the character and conduct of the bride, they would come to light during this time. The Bride of Christ is now in her espousal period. During this interval the blemishes of the Bride, if any, will certainly manifest themselves. History has proved that there have been many who have had the form of godliness, but have denied the power thereof. These blemishes (these men) vanish away; finally comes the consummation of the marriage.
3. The Bride Is Married to Christ. “Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints” (Rev. 19:7, 8). “Then shall the Realm of heaven be compared to ten maidens who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom and the bride” (Matt. 25:1 — Moffatt). This is the consummation of Christ’s marriage to His Church. The espousal period is over; she is now with her husband, and so shall she ever be with Him (I Thess. 4:17).
2.新妇被许配给基督。（哥林多后书11:2） “我以 神的热爱爱你们，因为我把你们献给基督，好像把贞洁的童女许配给一个丈夫”（新译本）。就我们所知，东方人的结婚与西方人的结婚方式有很大不同。东方的婚姻习俗是在以下的方式下进行的：首先，新娘被聘礼买赎（我们被基督买赎）;第二，举行仪式，持续大约一年的订婚期。在此期间，新娘被认定是丈夫的妻子，但他们没有住在一起。一年的等待期是对未来家庭的保护。如果新娘的性格和行为有任何瑕疵的话，这些缺点会在这段时间内曝露出来。基督的新妇现在是处于她的特殊时期。在这段时间内，新妇的瑕疵（如果有的话）肯定会显现出来。历史证明，有许多人是有敬虔的模样，但却抵挡与敬虔相关的大能。基督新妇的这些瑕疵（即教会裡这些徒有敬虔外貌的人）消失不见之后; 终于，基督与祂新娘的婚礼就完满的实现了。
3.基督来迎娶新妇。 “我们要欢喜快乐，把荣耀归给祂！因为羊羔的婚期到了；他的新娘也自己预备好了。并且有光洁的细麻衣，赐给她穿上；这细麻衣就是圣徒的义行。”（启示录19:7,8）。 “那时、天国好比十个童女、拿着灯、出去迎接新郎。”（马太福音25:1）。这是基督娶祂教会的完成。这个订婚时期结束了;新娘现在和她的丈夫在一起，所以教会也将与基督永远在一起（帖撒罗尼迦前书4:17）。
V. THE GIFTS TO THE BODY
“Unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore he saith, When He ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. . . . And he gave some apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers” (Eph. 4:7, 8, 11).
This was the first gift to the Church (Body). Upon the Apostles was built the early Church. The word “apostle” in the Greek is the same as the word “missionary” in Latin, meaning “the sent one.” Of course, the Church has missionaries (sent ones) today, but no apostles.
To these men God gave His revelations. At the first, the Church did not have the New Testament, yet it needed to know the doctrines of God; therefore, God gave to men His unwritten Word; these in turn gave it to the people. The Church has no prophets today for we have God’s complete revealed truth, the New Testament.
Another gift to the Church was evangelists. These men fervently heralded the Gospel. They were men of humility, burdened for the lost. The pastor is told to do the work of an evangelist (II Tim. 4:5). The day of the evangelist is not over, and will not be until Christ comes to reign upon the earth.
D. Pastors and Teachers.
The word “pastor” means “shepherd.” The pastor is to be the shepherd of his sheep, looking after his flock, weeping and rejoicing with them. The crying need of the Church today is for pastors. Blessed is the man who has a pastor’s heart. A pastor is not only called to preach three sermons a week, but he is called to pastor, shepherd, look after, care for, visit, love, protect, instruct the sheep. Every pastor, while doing the work of an evangelist, which is winning souls, should also be one who is able to teach the Word to his flock. Where will the church members get the Word if not from the pastor? All of the truth some people will get will be at a Sunday service.
Some distinguish between the pastor and the teacher, believing that there are those who are called only to be teachers. This may be so, but we know that all pastors are to be teachers also. All teachers may not be pastors, but all pastors must be teachers.
“我们各人蒙恩、都是照基督所量给各人的恩赐。所以经上说、他升上高天的时候、掳掠了仇敌、将各样的恩赐赏给人 . . . . 他所赐的有使徒、有先知．有传福音的．有牧师和教师．为要成全圣徒、各尽其职、建立基督的身体． ”（以弗所书4:7-8,11-12）。
VI. THE LOCAL CHURCH
While we believe that the Body of Christ is composed of all believers from Pentecost to the Rapture, we do stress the importance of the local church, or assembly. The local assembly is the physical body by which the Body (Church) is manifested. God stresses the importance of the local church by giving it officers and ordinances. He who is ashamed of the local assembly is ashamed of that which was established at Pentecost. The local church, as well as the Body of Christ, was established at Pentecost.
A. Its Organization.
The Scriptures indicate that there was some organization, but not as that today. It was not copied after the synagogue. It was entirely different.
B. Its Officers.
1. Deacons. I Timothy 3:8-13 gives the requirements for deacons. The deacons were not chosen to run the church, but to minister to the church.
2. Bishops and Elders. There is a vast difference between the early Church and that of today as to bishops. The early Church had many bishops in one local church; today, we have one bishop over many local churches. The elders were called by that name because they were the oldest in the family. If the father were dead, the first son took his place. An elder was an elderly man. Titus 1:5-7 says, “For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I appointed thee: if any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly. For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre.” According to this, the elder and bishop were the same. The word “elder” refers to the person, while the word “bishop” refers to the office. Every bishop was an elder, but every elder was not a bishop. The word “bishop” means “overseer.” The “overseers” of the local churches were old men. This group of bishops composed what is known as the presbytery (I Tim, 1:4).
C. Its Purpose.
The purpose of the Church is to glorify God in the building up of the Body of Christ in the holy faith; and to spread the Gospel to the ends of the earth, winning, baptizing, teaching.
2.监督与长老。有关于主教（关于监督），早期的教会与今天的教会存有巨大的差异。早期的教会在一个地方教会中有多位监督（多位主教）; 而今天，是有一位主教监督着许多的地方教会。长老这个名称被这样的称呼，是因他们是家裡最年长的。如果父亲死了，大儿子就接下他的位置。一位长老是一位老年人。提多书1:5-7 说：“我从前留你在革哩底、是要你将那没有办完的事都办整齐了、又照我所吩咐你的、在各城设立长老．若有无可指责的人、只作一个妇人的丈夫、儿女也是信主的、没有人告他们是放荡不服约束的、就可以设立。监督既是 神的管家、必须无可指责、不任性、不暴躁、不因酒滋事、不打人、不贪无义之财”.
根据这经文，长老与监督是一样的。 “长老”这词指的是人，而“监督”一词指的是职位。每个监督（主教）都是长老，但不是每个长老都是监督。 “主教”这词的意思为“监督者”。地方教会的“监督者”是长老。这群监督们（主教们）组成了所谓的长老会（提多书1:5 ）。
VII. DISCIPLINE IN THE LOCAL CHURCH
Even though it is true that the Church is under grace rather than law, the flesh is still in the believer, and the Lord has laid down rules of discipline for His local church. There were three steps in Church discipline, and they are as follows:
A. Judgment By Self.
“If we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged” (I Cor. 11:31). The believer knows when he has sinned and should immediately confess it to God (I John 1:9). If he confesses that sin, he has judged himself. It is forgiven, and he shall never be judged for it again. Let us stress the word “confess” however. Confess does not mean to admit it, that is, to own up to it; that is implied, but it goes deeper than that. It means to take one’s stand against.
B. Judgment By the Church.
If a sinning brother will not judge himself, then he must be judged by the local church. I Corinthians 5:11, 12 says “I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolator, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within?” Yes, fellowship in the local church should be withheld from the erring brother as judgment. Some term this “back-door revival.” This extreme judgment should be meted out only after the effort to restore him. “Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness: Considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted” (Gal. 6:1).
C. Judgment By God.
If the fallen brother does not judge himself, and the Church will not judge him, then God will judge him through chastisement (Heb. 12:5-13).
“我们若是先分辨自己、就不至于受审”（哥林多前书11:31）（ 新译本的翻译为）“我们若是先省察自己、就不至于受审判了”。信徒知道当自己犯了罪，就应该立即向神认罪（约翰一书1:9）。如果他认了那个罪，他就已经审判自己了。就被饶恕了，绝不会再受到审判。但是，我们要凸显这个词“认罪”来强调。认罪并不意味着承认犯了而已，也就是说，不仅仅是承认有而已; 那是隐晦（没有表态的），但认罪要比那更深入。认罪意味着採取立场要抵挡罪。
因为审判教外的人与我何干。教内的人岂不是你们审判的麽 ？”. . . 是的，应该禁止在犯罪中的弟兄与当地的教会团契，作为对他的审判。有些人称这种做法为“后门复兴”(或，受祝福的消减）。这极端严厉的审判只有在重建他的各种努力无效之后才执行。（加拉太书6:1） “弟兄们、若有人偶然被过犯所胜、你们属灵的人、就当用温柔的心、把他挽回过来．又当自己小心、恐怕也被引诱。”。
VIII. ORDINANCES IN THE LOCAL CHURCH
The Church has two ordinances: baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Baptism is observed at the beginning of the Christian life; the Lord’s Supper is taken all during the Christian life. We emphasize the fact that these are ordinances of the Church, and not sacraments.
Baptism is from the Greek word baptizo, meaning to dip, to plunge, to immerse for the purpose of dying. It can never mean sprinkling, or pouring.
1. Obligation (Matt. 28:18-20; Rom. 6:1-6; Col. 2:12). All believers are obliged to be baptized. One does not have to pray about it to seek God’s will in the matter. The Lord has commanded it.
2. Administration. Nearly every denomination, with the exception of some local Baptist groups, demands that their ministers, who administer the ordinance of baptism, must be ordained.
3. Explanation. Baptism is a public declaration of faith in Christ by the believer before man. It is his outward demonstration of an inward act, and is a picture of the death, burial and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ. Immersion fully portrays the place of death; there are some people, even today, who have met actual physical death after coming up out of the baptismal waters. Those who have come out of other religions evaluate the ordinance of baptism more highly than those who have been raised in Christian homes. Not only does baptism show the death, burial and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, but it also shows the believer’s identification with Christ. Baptism is his full declaration of his own death in Christ (II Cor. 5:14): dead to sin, dead to self and dead to the old life. It is also his declaration of being raised with Christ, after burying the old life, to walk in newness of life with Him.
The baptism of all believers, as recorded in the Word, pictures the death, burial and resurrection of Christ. The baptism of John the Baptist looked forward to Christ’s death and resurrection, and our baptism today looks back to the death and resurrection of our Lord.
It is not a saving ordinance. Man is saved by faith alone. This occurs before baptism. It is true, however, that baptism is a public declaration of faith before man, and God looks not upon the baptismal waters, but upon the heart of man.
4. Participation. Who should be baptized? I believe only the believer! “He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned” (Mark 16:16). Faith is first, then baptism. Again the question arises, “Does man have to be baptized to be saved?” No, for this Scripture says that he that believeth not shall be damned. If water baptism were essential, the Lord would have added these words, “He that is not baptized is damned.” The Apostle Paul, in writing to the Corinthians said, “I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius. . . . For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be of none effect” (I Cor. 1:14, 17). If baptism were necessary for salvation, Paul would not have boasted in the fact that he had baptized so few. He plainly states that baptism had nothing to do with the Gospel (Rom. 1:16), for Christ had sent him not to baptize, but to preach.
It is impossible to baptize an unbeliever, for if he is an unbeliever before he is immersed, he will be an unbeliever when he comes out of the baptismal waters.
What is the age limit for baptism? Some parents contend that twelve years of age is the youngest age at which a child should be baptized. This has no Scriptural foundation whatsoever. It may be a carry-over from the Jewish custom of adoption. The Word clearly states that baptism is for all believers, regardless of age or sex.
1.洗礼的义务（马太福音28:18-20; 罗马书6:1-6; 歌罗西书2:12）。所有的信徒都有义务必须受洗。你不必为这个要受洗与否向神祷告去寻求神的旨意。主已经命令了，信的人要受洗。
3.洗礼的解释。洗礼是信徒在人前对自己信入基督的公开宣告。这是他内在行为的外在展示，是主耶稣基督的死，埋葬和复活的一幅画面。 完全的浸入水里描绘出死的被埋; 在今日，有些人从洗礼的水域出来后，甚至还实际的遭遇了身体的死亡。那些从其他宗教中出来而相信主耶稣的人，比那些在基督徒家中长大的人更看重洗礼的条令。不仅因为洗礼表明了主耶稣基督的死，埋葬和复活，而且更是表明信徒的认证，与基督一同死了`被埋了又复活了。洗礼是他自己在基督裡死了的完全宣告（哥林多后书5:14）：向罪死，向自己死，向老我生命死了。也是埋葬了旧生命之后，他与基督一同复活的宣告，在新生命裡与主同行。
4.洗礼的参与。谁应该受洗？我相信只有信的人才应该受洗！（马可福音16:16） “信而受洗的必然得救。不信的必被定罪”。信仰在先，然后才是洗礼。那，问题再次出现了，“人必须受洗才能得救吗？”… 答桉为：不，因为这段经文是说不信的人要被定罪。如果水的洗礼是必不可少的话，主会加上这句，“没受洗的人要被定罪”。使徒保罗写信给哥林多教会的书信说：“我感谢 神、除了基利司布并该犹以外、我没有给你们一个人施洗 . . . . 基督差遣我、原不是为施洗、乃是为传福音．并不用智慧的言语、免得基督的十字架落了空。”（哥林多前书1:14,17）。如果洗礼是救赎所必需的，那麽保罗就不会夸口事实上他只给这麽少的人施洗过。他平铺直叙的说，洗礼与福音无关（罗马书1:16），因为基督差遣他并不是要去施洗，而是要他去传道/去传福音的。（这福音本是 神的大能、要救一切相信的。）
B. Lord’s Supper.
“I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup” (I Cor.11:23-28).
1. Origination. From the above Scriptures little doubt is left as to who instituted the Lord’s Supper. There is no record of this ordinance being held before the Lord Jesus inaugurated it. We, as it were, take the bread and the cup from His own precious hands. The theory that Christ never lived is exploded by the Lord’s Supper. It is His, and His only.
2. Obligation. The words “this do” are a command of the Lord, and the words “all of it” (Matt. 26:27) are better translated “all of you.” This ordinance is for the entire Body of Christ.
2.守圣餐的义务。“要这样做（do this）” 这话是主的命令，而“all of it ” 更确切的翻译是“你们全部”。(马太福音26:27 ）主耶稣又拿起杯来、祝谢了、递给他们、说: 你们全都要这样做。这个条令是给整个基督身体的。
a. Who? No one but a baptized child of God should participate in the Lord’s Supper. Those who sat with Him at the last supper had been baptized. Baptism is the symbol of the commencing of the new life, and the Lord’s Supper is a symbol of the sustenance of that life.
b. How often? Some churches observe the Lord’s Supper every Sunday; some, once a month; others, four times a year; and still others, once a year; some never observe the Lord’s Supper. What is the Scriptural stipulation for this observance? “As often” (I Cor. 11:26): there is no set, rigid rule.
c. In What Manner? Some believers are very confused concerning their fitness to partake of the Lord’s Supper after reading I Corinthians 11:27-29. They notice the word “unworthily,” and immediately they review their past mistakes, ever since they became a Christian, and fear that they shall be eating and drinking damnation to themselves if they partake. Let us point out that the word “unworthily” is an adverb, and modifies the word “drink,” which means to drink in an “unworthy manner.” As far as being worthy is concerned, which one of us can call himself worthy? No one! This has reference to the act of participation. The context will give a perfect explanation. In the early church love feasts were held; the rich brought their store of food and wine, while the converted slaves brought nothing. As the feast progressed, the rich believer, keeping his food and drink to himself, soon became drunk. The poor slave, of course, had nothing, and remained sober. The Lord’s Supper was observed at the conclusion of the feast. The drunken believer could not appreciate the Lord’s Supper. In his drunkenness, the cup of the Lord’s Supper meant nothing more to him than another drink of wine. He could not discern the Lord’s body and blood; thus, he drank it “unworthily.” This fact led to many untimely deaths in the Corinthian Church: “For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep” (ICor. 11:30).
If the Christian feels unworthy, it is a good indication that he is worthy, and vice versa. The man who finds some personal quality in himself to make him worthy to partake of the Lord’s Supper had better stay away. The table is not spread for the righteous, but for the unrighteous, who are justified by faith.
b..多久举行一次？有些教会每个星期日都会守主的晚餐。有些教会，是一个月一次;其他的，有一年四次的; 还有其他，是一年一次; 有些教会从来不守主的晚餐。
让我们指出“不配”这词是一个副词，是在形容“喝”这个动词，意思是在“不配的态度下喝”。就‘配得’这个考虑而言，我们哪一个人可以称自己是配得喝呢？没有任何人是配得的！这裡的‘配得’ 是论到参与领圣餐时的行为。 你读圣经的前后文就能得到出一个完美的解释。在早期教会，举行爱宴的时候; 有钱的信徒带他们丰盛的食物和葡萄酒来，而信主的奴隶什麽都没有带。随着盛宴的进行，那富有的信徒，只顾自己吃,自己喝，很快就喝醉了。而这些个可怜的奴隶，什麽也没吃，则是保持清醒的。在宴席结束时，教会举行主的晚餐掰饼喝酒的仪式。那些醉酒的信徒无能力感恩主的晚餐。在他的酣醉中，主晚餐的杯对他来说只不过是另一杯酒而已。他无法分辨那是主的身体和主的血; 那样，就“不配”地喝了那杯。这个事实导致哥林多教会中有许多人未到死期就死了：（哥林多前书11:30) “因此、在你们中间有好些软弱的、与患病的、死的也不少。(死，原文做睡了）”。
4. Constitution. The elements of the Lord’s Supper are bread and fruit of the vine. The bread was unleavened, as it was used in the observance of the Passover, from which the Lord inaugurated the Lord’s Supper.
a. Transubstantiation. This interpretation is held by the Roman Catholic Church. It declares that by the consecration of the priest the bread and wine cease to remain, as such, and become the actual body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ. This Faith contends that when the Lord said, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you” (John 6:53), he meant the actual flesh and blood of Christ. Therefore, the Mass is that ritual which turns the bread and wine into the actual flesh and blood of Christ. The priest alone drinks the wine, as not one drop of Christ’s blood must be spilt. The bread is in the form of a wafer, so that not a crumb of His body should be lost. In answer to this we ask, “How could Christ, while being in His perfect body, hold part of His body in His hand when he said, ‘This is my body’?”
b. Consubstantiation. The Lutherans and the Church of England believe this interpretation, which states that, while the bread remains bread, and the wine remains wine, the body and blood is present in a spiritual sense; the body and blood are present only at the moment when they are partaken of, and after being taken, cease to be the body and blood of Christ.
c. Symbolism. This is the true interpretation, which states that the bread and wine are only symbols of Christ’s body and blood, which were offered upon Calvary’s cross for the remission of sins. “This do in remembrance of me”; it is observed in blessed memory, and that is where it ends.
a. 圣餐形质变（Transubstantiation）的说法。罗马天主教会所持守这种解释。它宣称，通过祭司的圣餐礼的献上，这饼和酒就不再是饼和酒，而是变成主耶稣基督的真实体血。这种信念声称，当（约翰福音6:53主说：“我实实在在的告诉你们、你们若不喫人子的肉、不喝人子的血、就没有生命在你们裡面”的时候，他意味着是基督实际的肉与血。因此，弥撒就是将饼和酒变成基督的实际的肉与血的仪式。只有司铎（Priest 如旧约的祭司）牧师喝圣餐礼的酒，因不能让任何一滴基督的血溢出杯子。饼是薄饼的形状，这样就不会落掉主身上的任何一部分碎屑. . .
b. 圣餐合质论（Consubstantiation）的说法。路德教会和英格兰教会相信这种解释，这论点指出，虽然饼仍然是饼，酒仍然是酒，身体和血都在一种属灵意义上的同在; 主的身体和血只在他们分饼喝杯的那一刻真实临在，而在被吃喝之后，就不再是基督的身体和血了。
c. 圣餐象徵论（Symbolism）。这是真实理解的阐释，这个论点说饼和酒只是基督身体和血的象徵，祂的身体与血在各各他（骷髅地）的十字架上被献上的，作为撤销世人的罪。 “为的是记念我” （路加福音22:19, 林前11:24) ;圣餐在蒙福的纪念中被承认/遵守/参与，这是圣餐的终极意义。
6. Limitation. How long should the Church continue this observance? Till He comes again. What is our answer to the scoffer who jeers at the Second Coming, and who asks, “Where is the promise of His coming?” We point to the Lord’s Table and reply, “There is the promise of His coming.”
6.圣餐的期限。教会应该继续遵守这个规定多久？答桉是：直到基督再来。我们对那些嘲笑‘基督第二次再来’ 嘲笑者的回答, 与那些问“哪裡有应许说祂要再来？” 的人，我们指着主圣餐的桌子回答：“那就是祂要再来的应许。”
a. Its Value Doctrinally.
(1) The Person of Christ.
(a) His Humanity. His humanity is as real as His Deity. The symbols speak of His actual human body and blood, and it is most essential that it is human, as the atonement must be in the nature of that which sinned (“Christ died for us”).
(b) His Deity. His Deity is expressed in the words “Lord’s Supper.” All titles of Deity are in this one word, “Lord.”
(2) The Work of Christ.
(a) His Death. The elements of the Lord’s Supper portray this fact, for the body and blood are together in life, but separated in death.
(b) His Resurrection and Second Coming. “Till I come” does not mean “till I come from the grave”, but “till I come from heaven.”
(3) The Way of Salvation.
(a) It Assumes Our Guilt and Helplessness.
(b) It Emphasizes Substitution. (“Broken for you”)
(c) It Reminds Us That Salvation Is Free. (Given for you)
(d) It Declares the Gift of Salvation Must Be Accepted. (Take, eat and drink)
（b)祂的神性。他的神性在“主的晚餐”这个词裡被表达出来。神性的所有头衔都在 ‘主’ 这个字裡面。
（b）祂的复活和再来。 启示录2:25的 “直等到我来” 并不意味着“直等到我从坟墓来”，而是“直等到我从天而来”。
b. Its Value Devotionally.
(1) We Come With Confession.
(2) We Come With Prayer.
(3) We Come With Consecration.
(4) We Come With Humility.
(5) We Come With Thanksgiving.
(6) The Whole Man Is Engaged.
(a) Ears to Hear His Invitation.
(b) Eyes to See Its Symbol.
(c) Hands That Handle the Elements.
(d) Mouth Which Eats the Elements.
(e) Body Which Assimilates the Element — Becomes Part of Us.
（e）身体吸收圣餐的元素- 酒与饼与所象徵的血与肉 – 使成为我们的一部分。
c. Its Value Practically.
(1) It Is a Means of Grace.
(2) It Is a Means of Testimony.
(3) It Is a Means of Strengthening Faith.
(4) It Is a Means to Promote Our Love Toward Him.
(5) It is a Means to Promote Love Toward One Another.
(6) It Is a Means to Promote Fellowship. This fellowship is one with another in Christ around the Lord’s Table, He being the center.
(7) It is a Means to Stimulate Holiness.
d. Its Value Prophetically. If the Lord Jesus is not coming the second time, why celebrate the Lord’s Supper? He is coming! Remember, in answer to those who ask, “Where is the promise of His coming?”, we point to the Lord’s Supper.