人論 Anthropology – 論到人的教義
聖經教義 – 有關的重要信仰
作者： 馬可. 坎布朗 ，神學博士 Mark G. Cambron, D.D.
OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER IV 第四章 人論的大綱
I. Man in His State of Integrity. 壹.人的整體狀態
A. His Origin. 人的起源
B. His Nature. 他的本性
C. His Constitution. 他的組成成份
D. His Condition.他的狀況。
E. His Headship. 他領導代表性。
II. Man in His State of Sin. 貳.人在罪裡的狀態
A. The Fall of Man. 人的墮落
B. The Fallen Sons of Adam. 亞當子孫的墮落
III. Man in His State of Grace. 叁. 人在恩典下的狀態。
A. His Standing.他的地位。
B. His State.他的狀態。
C. His Two Natures. 他的兩個本性
Anthropology comes from the Greek word “anthropos,” meaning “man.” Anthropology is the doctrine of man. There are many different definitions of man, some comical, some tragic. In this study of anthropology we shall go to the true source — the Scriptures.
Man has always wanted to know who he is, where he came from, and where he is going. God’s Holy Word gives the only complete account.
I. MAN IN HIS STATE OF INTEGRITY
By this we mean man in his original state of purity, his uprightness.
A. His Origin.
a. Not by Abiogenesis or Spontaneous Generation. This theory holds to the belief that there was no creator of man, but that man simply came into being without a cause and began to exist, fulfilling the nursery rhyme, which reads:
Where did you come from, Baby dear?
Out of the nowhere, into here!
This argument needs no answer, but in order to forestall criticism, we simply state that if such a thing as abiogenesis were possible, there would be no power to keep it from happening again. There is no record of a second occurrence, and, of course, it never happened in the first place.
b. Not by Evolution or Natural Developments. A short definition of evolution is: “That process by which, through some kind of aggregation of matter through many ages and species, by chance or by law, man appears.” This concept has held sway for many years, but its adherents are on the decline. Modern science, such as anthropology, is refuting all of its claims. The Bible declares that man is a separate creation of God, and that the animals were created at a different time, completely apart from man. Evolution teaches that man and animals have a common origin, which branched out into the different species. In refuting this we use the Scriptures and human reasoning as follows:
(1) It is Opposed to Scripture. The Scriptures state: “After his kind” (Gen. 1:24). This pins the species down to themselves, forbidding them to evolve into a completely new species.
(2) There is No Record of Animal Becoming Man. Surely, in six thousand years, if evolution were true, there would be living examples of it today.
(3) There is No Evidence that the Missing Link Has Been Found. Many so-called history books show pictures of the creature they term as the missing link. These pictures are photographs of drawings, and not photographs of real creatures, as none of these exist. The “missing link,” we are told, is that creature between man and the ape. Its picture is wholly the imagination of the artist who took a piece of a bone or tooth and built a man around it. It is the same as a man taking a key hole and building a house around it. We would like to quote William Jennings Bryan concerning the “missing link”: “If the missing link has been found, why are they still looking for it?”
(4) There is No Evidence that Primitive Man Differed From Man Today.
(5) There Is Proof that Human Blood is One Blood. (Acts 17:26). World War II has proved this. The blood of a white man can be placed into the veins of a black man, and vice versa, and give life. Blood transfusions have only been in practice during the last hundred years, but God revealed this to us several thousand years ago.
(6) There is a Great Difference Between the Constitution of Man and Animal.
(a) Physically. Man is an upright being, while animals are on all fours.
(b) Mentally. Man has intellect, while animals have instinct.
(c) Morally. Man is the only creature of God that has moral qualities.
(d) Spiritually. Man alone has been created with spiritual concepts. He alone of all the creatures can worship God.
2. Positive. Man is a direct creation of God. “God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them” (Gen. 1:27).
人論 （人類學）这原文Anthropology來自於希臘語“anthropos”，意思是“人”。人論是關於人的教義。在世間有許多關於人的不同定義，有些是喜劇的，有些是悲劇的。在這章人論的學習中，我們會到真實的源頭 – 聖經那裡去探尋。
（3）沒有證據表明這‘缺失的環節’曾被發現過。許多所謂的歷史書籍展示出他們所宣稱是‘進化缺鏈’之生物的照片。但這些照片是畫出來之圖像的照片，而不是真實生物的照片，因為這些東西沒有一個是存在的。 這些“進化缺鏈”，他們說是介於人與猿之間的生物。但這些生物的圖像完全是出於藝術家的想像；這些藝術家拿著一塊骨頭或牙齒，然後圍繞它建構出來一個人體。這就好比你想像一個鑰匙孔,然後圍繞著那（空空的）鑰匙孔去建造出一棟房子來一樣的不可信。關於“缺失的鏈接”，我想引用威廉·詹寧斯·布萊恩（William Jennings Bryan）的話。他說：“如果進化的缺鏈已經被發現了，為什麼那些科學家現在還在尋找它呢？”
B. His Nature.
1. Original Image of Man. “God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (Gen. 1:26a). “Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man” (Gen. 9:6). See also I Corinthians 11:7; James 3:9.
a. Seen in Man’s Triunity. “The LORD God formed man out of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen. 2:7). “The very God of peace sanctify you wholly: and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ” (I Thess. 5:23).
b. Seen in Man’s Intellectual and Moral Nature. “Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds; and have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him” (Col. 3:9, 10). See also Ephesians 4:24.
c. Seen in Physical Likeness. It is true that God is a Spirit (John 4:24); God is invisible (Col. 1:15). Yet God has always had a form in which He manifests Himself: “As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake with beholding thy form” (Ps. 17:15, R.V.). See also Philippians 2:6,7; Mark 15:12; John 5:37, R.V.
Christ was not made in the form or image of Adam, but Adam was made in the form, or image of Christ, who was to come: “Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come” (Rom. 5:14).
2. Original Innocence of Man. Some declare that Adam was created in holiness, or righteousness. This is not quite correct. Man was created perfect, yes, but he was created in innocence. There is a vast difference between innocence and righteousness. Innocence is sinlessness that has never faced trial. Righteousness is innocence that has been tested and tried, and has come out victorious.
1. 人的原始形象。 “神说，我们要照着我们的形像，按着我们的样式造人”（創世記1:26 a）。 “凡流人血的，他的血也必被人所流。因为神造人是照自己的形像造的。”（創世記9：6）。另見哥林多前書11:7;雅各書3:9。
a. 從靈魂體的三合一來看。（創世記2:7） “耶和華 神用地上的塵土造人、將生氣吹在他鼻孔裡、他就成了有靈的活人 “。（帖撒羅尼迦前書5:23）。 “願賜平安的 神、親自使你們全然成聖．又願你們的靈、與魂、與身子、得蒙保守、在我主耶穌基督降臨的時候、完全無可指摘。”
b. 從人的知識和道德本性看。（歌羅西書3:9,10） “不要彼此說謊．因你們已經脫去舊人，和舊人的行為,穿上了新人．這新人在知識上漸漸更新`正如造他主的形像．“。另見以弗所書4:24。
c. 從身體的相似來看。確實，“神是一位靈”（約翰福音4:24）; 神是人肉眼看不見的（歌羅西書1:15）。然而，神總是用某種形式顯現自己：（詩篇17:15）“至於我、我必在義中見你的面．我醒了的時候、得見你的形像、就心滿意足”。另見腓立比書2:6-7;馬可福音15:12; 約翰福音5:37。
C. His Constitution.
As we shall see, man is composed of earthly (Gen. 2:7) and spiritual elements (I Thess. 5:23; Heb. 4:12).
1. Body. His body was made from the earth. This was the first part of man that was formed. “The LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen. 2:7). The body is set forth in Scripture as the house of the inner man. “How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is the dust, which are crushed before the moth?” (Job 4:19). See also II Corinthians 5:1, 3, 4. The process by which God made man is not known; we leave that up to God. Men give their opinions and speculations, but they remain as such. The word “dust” does not mean clay, or old dirty dirt, but the finest materials of the earth.
a. Analysis Proves Man’s Source. Modern chemical analysis detects in the body the same elements that are in the earth beneath man’s feet; such elements as sodium, carbon, iron, and the like.
b. Earth Sustains Man’s Existence. The body is sustained by that which grows out of the earth. It is man’s body and not his spirit that is sustained. Famine in our modern day has proved that if vegetation is taken away, life is taken away. Kill vegetation and you kill man.
c. Death Substantiates Man’s Elements. At death corruption sets in, and man’s body soon returns to the dust from which it was formed. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return” (Gen. 3:19).
1.身體。人的身體是由土造成的。這是人被形成的第一部分。（創世記2:7，新譯本） “耶和華 神用地上的塵土造成人形，把生氣吹進他的鼻孔裏，那人就成了有生命的活人”。聖經闡明了，身體是裡面的人所住的家。 （約伯記4:19）“何況那住在土房、根基在塵土裡、被蠹蟲所毀壞的人呢？”。另見哥林多後書5:1,3,4。上帝創造人的過程細節我們並不知道; 這是屬於神的奧秘。人們對於上帝的造人有各自的意見/推測，但奧秘依然是奧秘。 “塵土”這個詞，其意思並不是指粘土或舊污泥，而是指地球上最好的材料。
2. Soul. “The LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen. 2:7). See also I Corinthians 15:45. The soul is the seat of the emotions and appetites. Plants, animals and man have bodies; only animals and man have a soul; but only man has a spirit. The soul is that conscious life which is in man and animal. Plants have life, but it is unconscious life. There is a difference between the souls of men and the souls of animals. The animal’s soul is connected with his body, while man’s soul is connected with his spirit. The soul of an animal dies with the animal, but man’s soul never dies, for he was made a “living soul” — a soul that would never die.
As stated, the soul of man is the seat of his emotions and appetites, and the following Scriptures will bring out the degrees of same:
Appetites: “Thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which he hath given thee: the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the roebuck, and as of the hart” (Deut. 12:15).
Desires: “If any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, and then take as much as thy soul desireth; then he would answer him, Nay; but thou shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force” (I Sam. 2:16). See also Deuteronomy 12:20; Psalm 107:18; Proverbs 6:30; Isaiah 29:8; I Samuel 18:1.
Hates: “David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David’s soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house” (II Sam. 5:8).
Mourns: “His flesh upon him shall have pain, and his soul within him shall mourn” (Job 14:22).
Is Vexed: “The man of God said, Let her alone; for her soul is vexed within her: and the LORD hath hid it from me, and hath not told me” (II Kings 4:27b).
Rejoices: “I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels” (Is. 61:10).
Suffers:“They said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us” (Gen. 42:21).
Sorrows: “He said unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch” (Mark 14:34).
Where does man get his soul?
a. Pre-existence. This theory teaches that all souls that have ever been in the world, or shall ever be in the world, were created in the beginning. At time of conception, they are united with the body. This was taught by Plato, but it was never accepted by the church, as it is without Scriptural foundation.
b. Creationism. This belief holds that after forty days of conception the soul unites with the body. Roman Catholicism proposes this. If this belief is true, then God is the creator of sinful souls.
c. Traducianism. This is the truth which holds that both soul and body are derived from the parents. “Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth” (Gen. 5:3). See also Acts 17:24-26.
2.魂。（創世記2:7，新譯本） “耶和華 神用地上的塵土造成人形，把生氣吹進他的鼻孔裏，那人就成了有生命的活人，名叫亞當。”。另見哥林多前書15:45。魂是情感和慾望的所在。植物，動物和人類都有體;只有動物和人才有魂; 但（動物沒有靈）只有人才有靈。魂是那知覺/意識的生命，這知覺在人與動物裡面中才有。植物有生命，但植物是無意識知覺的生命。人的魂和動物的魂兩者是不同的。動物的魂與其身體聯結，而人的魂則是與靈聯結。當動物死了，它的魂也死了，但是人的魂永遠不會死，因為人是被造成一個“有生命的活人（A living soul)” – 直譯是，一個活的魂。
喜好： (申命記12:15) “然而在你各城裡、都可以照耶和華你 神所賜你的福分、隨心所欲宰牲吃肉、無論潔淨人、不潔淨人、都可以吃、就如吃羚羊與鹿一般”。
慾望： (撒母耳上 2:16）“獻祭的人說：必須先燒脂油、然後你可以隨意取肉．他就說、你立時給我、不然我便搶去 ”。參見申命記12:20; 詩篇107:18; 箴言6:30; 以賽亞書29:8; 撒母耳記上18:1。
喜樂： (以賽亞書61:10）“我因耶和華大大歡喜、我的心靠 神快樂．因他以拯救為衣給我穿上、以公義為袍給我披上、好像新郎戴上華冠、又像新婦佩戴妝飾。”。
c.遺傳論。認為魂和身體都來自於父母, 這是真理。（創世記5:3） “亞當活到一百三十歲、生了一個兒子、形像樣式和自己相似、就給他起名叫塞特”。另見使徒行傳17:24-26。
3. Spirit. Here is where man differs from all creatures. In Hebrews 12:9 God is said to be “Father of spirits.” This does not mean the Father of angels, but of the spirits of men made perfect. God is never said to be the Father of souls.
“As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also” (Jas. 2:26). When a body dies, the soul departs with the spirit of man. The soul and spirit can be separated “the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart” (Heb. 4:12). However, there is no Scriptural proof that they are ever separated. The rich man of Luke 16 goes to Hades upon death, and he has both soul and spirit with him. See also Matthew 10:28.
The spirit of man is the seat of his intelligence. “What man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God” (I Cor. 2:11). Animals do not possess intelligence. “Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding: whose mouth must be held in with bit and bridle, lest they come near unto thee” (Ps. 32:9).
The word “spirit,” both in the Hebrew and Greek, is sometimes translated as “breath,” and “wind.” The context determines the translation.
The materialists say that the word for spirit should be “breath,” and that when man dies he is gone forever.
Some people say that man lost his spirit at the Fall and regains his spirit at conversion. This would make him a dual being however, and this conception has no Scriptural grounds.
人的靈是他智慧的所在。 “除了在人裡頭的靈、誰知道人的事呢？ 像這樣、除了 神的靈、也沒有人知道 神的事。”（林前2:11）。動物沒有智慧的靈。（詩篇32:9 )“你不可像那無知的騾馬、必用嚼環轡頭勒住他．不然、就不能馴服”。
4. Heart. When we speak of the heart, we do not mean the muscle in the body, but rather the seat of conscience. “Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water” (Heb. 10:22). See also I John 3:19,20; Acts 2:26; 5:3, 5; Matthew 22:37. There is a warning that there may be a profession without a possession, a head knowledge without a heart trust. “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of the Father which is in heaven” See also Matthew 7:22, 23.
4.心。當我們談到心時，我們指的並不是人身體裡面的心臟那塊肉，而是指良知的所在。（希伯來書10:22） “當我們心中天良的虧欠已經灑去、身體用清水洗淨了、就當存著誠心、和充足的信心、來到 神面前”。另見約翰一書3:19,20; 使徒行傳2:26; 5:3,5; 馬太福音22:37。這裡有一個警告，可能會有人口頭宣稱他有,而實際上卻沒有，可能僅僅有頭腦的知識卻沒有內心的相信。耶穌說 “不是每一個對我說：‘主啊，主啊！的人，都能進入天國，唯有遵行我天父旨意的人，才能進去。” （參見馬太福音7:21-23）。
D. His Condition.
By this we mean man’s condition in his state of integrity before he fell.
在人的狀況方面，我們指的是人墮落之前他的整體上 – 完整無缺的狀態。
1. His Knowledge. He had immediate knowledge, intuitive knowledge. He was not an adult infant. He named all animals that came from the hand of God; It would take an intelligent man to do this. “Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him” (Gen. 2:20).
1.他的知識。亞當被造時就立即有知識，有直覺的智慧了。他不是成年嬰兒（有大人的身體而僅有嬰兒的智力）。他那時為神所造的各種動物命名; 這需要有知識，才能做到這一點。（創世記2:20） “那人就給各樣牲畜、空中的雀鳥，和野地的各樣走獸起了名字；只是那人沒有遇見一個和他相配的幫手。“（新譯本）。
2. His Fellowship. He was able to commune with God. “The LORD God commanded the man saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat” (Gen. 2:16). “God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat” (Gen. 1:29).
2.他的交往。他能夠與神相交。 “耶和華 神吩咐他說、園中各樣樹上的果子、你可以隨意吃”（創世記2:16）。 “神說、看哪、我將遍地上一切結種子的菜蔬、和一切樹上所結有核的果子、全賜給你們作食物。“（創世記1:29）。
3. His Home. It was located in a garden. “The LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed” (Gen. 2:8). Some men claim that primitive man was a cave man, but this was not so, for he was a garden man. The first records we have of men living in caves are of the persecuted: “Of whom the world was not worthy; they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth” (Heb. 11:38), and of the insane: “when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit” (Mark 5:2).
This garden is not called Eden, but rather, the Garden in Eden. “Eden” means plains, or plateau.Armenia, no doubt, is the place where man began.
3.人的家。是安置在一個園子裡。（創世記2:8） “耶和華 神在東方的伊甸立了一個園子、把所造的人安置在那裡。”。有些人聲稱最初的人（原始人）是個住在洞穴裡的人，但事實並非如此，因為起初被造的那人是個住在園子裡的人。我們讀到的頭幾個記載住在洞穴中的人是受迫害的人和心智錯亂的人：（希伯來書11:38），“他們在曠野`山嶺`山洞`地穴、飄流無定．本是世界不配有的人。 ”。（馬可福音5:2）”耶穌一下船、就有一個被污鬼附著的人、從墳塋裡出來迎著他”。
4. His Companion. “For Adam there was not found an help meet for him. . . . And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man” (Gen. 2:20, 22). The words “help meet” are not a compound word, but two separate ones, meaning “fit for.” Eve was “fit for” Adam. Some who laugh at this “rib story” cannot tell us where woman did come from. Why do you suppose God did not make woman from the dust? For the simple reason that God did not want to have two origins of man.
God can make a human being in four ways:
Without a man or woman, as Adam.
Without the aid of a woman, as Eve.
Without a man, by a woman, as Christ.
4.他的伴侶。 （創2:20,22新譯本） “只是那人沒有找到配偶幫助他。 . . 耶和華 神就用那人身上所取的肋骨、造成一個女人、領他到那人跟前。”
5. His Work. “God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth” (Gen. 1:28). “The LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it” (Gen. 2:15). There was employment in the garden, but no toil. There was work, but not the kind that wears one out. The word “keep” in Genesis 2:15 is best translated “guard.” Against whom was Adam to guard the garden? Against wild animals? No, there were none. Against wild men? No, for Adam was the only man. He was put on his guard against the possible appearance of the Devil. Whenever man is placed in a position of trust, God always gives ample warning.
5.人的工作。（創世紀1:28） “神就賜福給他們、又對他們說、要生養眾多、遍滿地面、治理這地．也要管理海裡的魚、空中的鳥．和地上各樣行動的活物。“。（創2:15） “耶和華 神將那人安置在伊甸園、使他修理看守。”。花園裡有事要做，但沒有勞苦的工。有工作，但不是那種汗流浹背的苦工。創世記2:15中的“看守”這個詞最好是被翻譯成“守衛”。亞當守護花園要抵擋誰呢？要抵擋野生動物嗎？不，裡面並沒有。要抵擋野人嗎？不，因為亞當是唯一的人。他是被放在他的守衛上為要抵擋魔鬼的可能出現的。每當人被放在接受托負的位置時，上帝總會給足充分的警告的。
6. His Food. “God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat” (Gen. 1:29). The first man and beast of the field were vegetarians. Their diets included no meat. Man was not carnivorous as evolutionists claim.
7. His Responsibility.
a. To Replenish the Earth With a New Order — Man. “God blessed them and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it” (Gen. 1:28). Adam was the first man: “The first man Adam was made a living soul” (I Cor. 15:45). Eve is the mother of all human beings. “Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living” (Gen. 3:20).
b. To Abstain from Eating of the Fruit. This fruit was of the tree of the knowledge of Good and Evil. “The LORD God commanded the man saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayestfreely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die” (Gen. 2: 16, 17).
They were allowed to eat freely, as there was plenty. There was only one tree forbidden them. We do not know what kind of fruit it was. Nothing was wrong with the fruit; there was just God’s prohibition behind it. God wanted Adam and Eve to have knowledge, but he did not want them to gain it by disobedience. Re-member, man had been placed on his guard; he had been warned of the enemy; Satan did not come in unawares. This being true, why did God allow Adam and Eve to be subjected to the attack of the Devil? Testing always comes before a blessing. Man always has to be tried before he is promoted.
a.要生養眾多遍滿地面、治理這地。（創世記1:28） “神就賜福給他們、又對他們說、要生養眾多、遍滿地面、治理這地．”（創1:28）。亞當是第一個人：（哥林多前書15:45）“首先的人亞當、成了有靈的活人。”。夏娃是所有人類之母。 “亞當給他妻子起名叫夏娃、因為她是眾生之母“（創世記3:20）。
E. His Leadership.
The entire human race comes from that one man, Adam. As is the head, so are the descendants.
1. Ethnography. This is the branch of anthropology that considers man geographically and descriptively, treating of the subdivision of races, the causes of migration, and related matters.This science points to a common homeland — Armenia.
2. Comparative Philology. This is the science of language, and it considers that men all come from the same origin.
3. Psychology. This is the science of the mind, and it also indicates that man comes from one origin.
4. Physiology. This is the science that deals with the organic structure of the body, and it declares that all men come from the same source, a common origin.
1.種族學。這是人類學的一個分支，是從地理上和旁證上看待人類種族的細分`遷徙的原因和有關事件的，人類學的一個分支。這個科學指向一個共同的家園 – 亞美尼亞平原。
II. MAN IN HIS STATE OF SIN
A. The Fall of Man.
Some may say that the fall of man is an old Babylonian fable, but we have only to look upon man and see him toil for his bread, weaken in his diseases, and die in his misery, to realize that he has had a fall. “By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Rom. 5:12).
1. The Source of Sin. “Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?” (Gen. 3: 1). “I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ” (II Cor. 11:3). God is not speaking about a beast when He mentions the serpent, but a person. Notice that the Scripture does not say, “more subtle than any other beast of the field,” but leaves out the word “other,” stating only that he is more subtle than any beast. This is merely a statement of what God thinks of the Devil. Nowhere in Scripture does it state that the Devil was in the serpent, but it does say that the serpent was the Devil. “He laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years” (Rev. 20:2).
1.罪的源頭。（創世記3:1）。 “耶和華 神所造的、惟有蛇比田野一切的活物更狡猾。蛇對女人說、 神豈是真說、不許你們吃園中所有樹上的果子麼。？”。（哥林多後書11：3） “我只怕你們的心或偏於邪、失去那向基督所存純一清潔的心、就像蛇用詭詐誘惑了夏娃一樣。”。當神論到蛇的時候，祂並不是在說一隻野獸而是在說一個人。請注意，聖經沒有說“比田野其他一切的活物更狡猾”；這個詞“其他”並不在句子裡，只說‘比田野一切的活物更狡猾’。這僅僅是神認為魔鬼是什麼‘東西’的一個陳述。聖經沒有任何一處記載說魔鬼是在蛇裡面，但聖經確實有說古蛇就是魔鬼。（啟示錄20:2） “（天使）他捉住那龍、就是古蛇、又叫魔鬼、也叫撒但、把他捆綁一千年”。
2. The Nature of Sin. “The serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat” (Gen. 3:4-6). Now the fruit was all right; it was good fruit, with only the prohibition of God behind it. Some people may contend that it was a small thing to bring about man’s downfall, but we ask the question, “How many steps does it take to fall off a bluff?”
a. He Doubted God’s Love. In doubting God’s love, man denied God’s goodness, and acted apart from God and became a sinner. “There is a way which seems right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death” (Prov. 14:12). See also Isaiah 55:6.
b. He Doubted God’s Word. In doubting God’s Word, man denied His Truth; denying His Truth, he acted in spite of God and became a criminal. “Whosoever commits sin transgress also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law” (I John 3:4).
c. He Doubted God’s Authority. In doubting God’s authority, man denied God’s deity; denying His deity, he became contrary to God. Thus, he became God’s enemy and a rebel in God’s universe. “The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God” (Rom. 8:7, 8).
The testing was given to see if man would stay true to God. He failed because he wanted to be a god. The Devil himself fell (Is. 14), because he wanted to be like the Most High God. This brought about his downfall, so he planted the same seed of false ambition in Adam and Eve to see if it would bring about their downfall, and it did.
Some may ask, “Was this fair to them?” They were warned and placed on guard against Satan. There was only one prohibition in the garden. They did not need the fruit; they lacked nothing.
2.罪的本質。（創3：4-6） “蛇對女人說、你們不一定死、因為 神知道、你們喫的日子眼睛就明亮了、你們便如 神能知道善惡。 於是女人見那棵樹的果子好作食物、也悅人的眼目、且是可喜愛的、能使人有智慧、就摘下果子來吃了．又給他丈夫、他丈夫也吃了”。那水果還可以;它是好果子，只是背後有神的禁止。有些人可能會抗議那是小事，不能因此就造成人類的跌倒墮落。但我們要問的是：“人掉落斷崖需要多少的步驟呢？”
c.他懷疑了神的權柄。在懷疑上帝的權柄時，人就否認了上帝的神性; 一旦否認了上帝的神性，他就變得與上帝相悖。因此，他成為與上帝為敵的，在上帝的宇宙中成為反抗上帝的。（羅馬書8:7,8） “原來體貼肉體、就是與 神為仇．因為不服 神的律法、也是不能服。而且屬肉體的人、不能得 神的喜歡。“。
有些人可能會問，“這對於亞當與夏娃他們公平嗎？” 我的答案是：他們被安置在園子裡守衛，並且事先警告他們要提防撒旦。在園子裡所有的果子都可以吃，只有一種果子神禁止他們吃。他們並不需要吃那禁果的; 因為他們根本什麼都不缺的。
3. The Effects of Sin.
a. Immediate Effects Upon Eve.
(1) Shame. “They both were naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons” (Gen. 2:25; 3:7). God himself is clothed with a garment of light (Ps. 104:2); and when He made man, he made him in His own image and likeness. Thus, we believe that man also was clothed with a garment of light. When man sinned, that clothing of light was lost, and he made himself a fig leaf covering to take the place of that which was lost. Ever since, man has tried to put on what God once gave him, but he has nothing but filthy rags.
(2) Fear. “He said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself” (Gen. 3:10). Man still tries to hide from God.
(3) Separation from God. There is no doubt that man lost his perfect nature and ended his fellowship with God. There is no such thing as the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man of the natural man, the unsaved man.
(4) Expulsion from the Garden. “The LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the end of the garden of Eden cherubims, and a flaming sword, which turned every way to keep the way ofthe tree of life” (Gen. 3:23, 24). Man was driven out.
(5) Lost Lordship Over Creation. In the beginning Adam was indeed the ruler of all earthly creatures: “Thou made him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beast of the field; the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passes through the paths of the sea” (Ps. 8:6-8). This is not true of man today. He has lost that lordship. Christ will return it to man when He comes again (Heb. 2 and Is. 11).
b. Remote Effects Upon Adam’s Posterity.
(1) The Spirit is Darkened. “This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind, having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart” (Eph. 4:17, 18). The darkened room of understanding will remain darkened until the Holy Spirit comes in to illuminate.
(2) The Soul Is Debased arid Corrupt. Unbelievers, “being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness to work all uncleanness with greediness” (Eph. 4:19). See also Jeremiah 17:9.
(3) The Body Is Subjected to Disease and Death. “The creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God” (Rom. 8:21).
（4）被趕出園裡。 “ 耶和華 神就把他趕出伊甸園，去耕種他自己也是從那裏出來的地土。於是把亞當驅逐出去，又派基路伯在伊甸園的東邊，拿著旋轉發火焰的劍，把守到生命樹去的路。”（創世記3:23,24）。人被趕出去了。
（1）靈，黑暗昏昧了。（以弗所書4:17,18） “所以我說、且在主裡確實的說、你們行事、不要再像外邦人存虛妄的心行事．他們心地昏昧、與 神所賜的生命隔絕了、都因自己無知、心裡剛硬”。黑暗昏昧的認知空間會持續的昏暗直到聖靈進入,照亮它為止。
（3）體，在疾病和死亡的轄制下。（羅馬書8:21） “受造的萬物仍然指望脫離敗壞的轄制、得享 神兒女自由的榮耀。”
4. The Effects on Sin.
a. The Immediate Expression of God’s Judgment.
(1) On the Serpent. “The LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: and I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:14, 15). Satan, in all of his majesty, is considered nothing but a serpent. This is a figure of speech, for we know that snakes do not eat dust. God’s decree unto the serpent that he should eat dust all the days of his life, showed the contempt in which He held the Devil.
(2) On the Woman. “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee” (Gen. 3:16).
(3) On Creation. “Unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field” (Gen. 3:17, 18).
(4) On Man. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return” (Gen. 3:19). See also Genesis 5:29.
b. The Future Expression of God’s Judgment. “The fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whore mongers, and sorcerers, and idolators, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone: which is the second death” (Rev. 21:8).
（2）對女人的審判。 “耶和華 神對女人說、我必多多加增你懷胎的苦楚、你生產兒女必多受苦楚．你必戀慕你丈夫、你丈夫必管轄你”。（創世記3:16）
（3）在受造物身上。 “耶和華 神對亞當說、你既聽從妻子的話、喫了我所吩咐你不可喫的那樹上的果子、地必為你的緣故受咒詛．你必終身勞苦、纔能從地裡得喫的。地必給你長出荊棘和蒺藜來、你也要喫田間的菜蔬。“（創世記3:17,18）。
b.神表達的將來審判 。（啟示錄 21:8） “惟有膽怯的`不信的`可憎的`殺人的`淫亂的`行邪術的`拜偶像的、和一切說謊話的,他們的分就在燒著硫磺的火湖裡．這是第二次的死”。
5. The Provision for the Sinner. “I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15). In the hour that man sinned, God promised a Redeemer. The Seed of the woman is no one else but Jesus Christ. “Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skin, and clothe them” (Gen. 3:21). When they realized their nakedness, they covered themselves with aprons of fig leaves. God clothed them with animal skins instead. As far as covering their nakedness was concerned, fig leaves were as good as animal skins; however, blood had to be spilt — “For without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sin.” They had to be covered with that which was slain for their sins. Likewise, the sinner today has to be clothed with the righteousness of Him who died for them.
5.為罪人的供應預備。（創世記3:15） “我又要叫你和女人彼此為仇、你的後裔和女人的後裔、也彼此為仇．女人的後裔要傷你的頭、你要傷他的腳跟。”。在人犯罪的那個時刻，神應許要給人一位救贖主。女人的後裔，指的不是別人，正是耶穌基督。（創3:21） “耶和華 神為亞當和他妻子用皮子作衣服、給他們穿”。當他們意識到自己的赤身露體時，他們用無花果的葉子遮掩自己。而神用動物的皮做衣服給他們穿。對於遮蓋他們的赤身裸體而言，無花果的樹葉與動物的皮是一樣好用的;然而，血必須要被濺灑 – “因為若沒有流血，就沒有罪的赦免。”。他們必須被那些為他們的罪而被殺之祭物的血所遮蓋。同樣，今天的罪人必須被那位替他們死的主耶穌基督的義所遮掩。（罪人必須披上為他們而死的主耶穌基督的義）。
B. The Fallen Sons of Adam.
1. Their Standing.
a. In Adam. “Since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (I Cor. 15:21, 22). See also I Corinthians 15:45, 47; Romans 5:12-21. There are only two representative men in the world: the first man and the second man; the first Adam and the last Adam. All men are born in Adam; all born-again men are in Christ.
b. Of Sin and Guilt. “What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin, as it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one” (Rom. 3:9, 10). See also Romans 3:19.
2. Their State. By their state we mean their spiritual condition; that is, the absence of righteousness in their spiritual life.
a. Sinful in Nature. “Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me” (Ps. 51:5). See also Ephesians 2:3; Genesis 6:5; Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 8:7; Galatians 5:19-21.
b. Sinful in Practice. “We ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another” (Titus 3:3). See also Romans 3:23; Colossians 1:21; Psalm 14:1-3.
c. Lost in Sin. “The Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:10). See also Isaiah 53:6; II Corinthians 4:3, 4.
d. Spiritually Dead. “You hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins…Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, by grace are ye saved” (Eph. 2: 1, 5). God’s picture of a sinner is a dead man, a man with all of the organs of movement, but no motion. Likewise, the sinner cannot move in the things of God.
e. Under God’s Wrath. “The wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness” (Rom. 1:18). See also John 3:36.
f. Waits for Death. “It is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment (Heb. 9:27).
g. Sure of Hell. “Whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire” (Rev. 20:15). See also Revelation 21:8.
a.是在亞當裡。 “死既是因一人而來、死人復活也是因一人而來。在亞當裡眾人都死了．照樣、在基督裡眾人也都要復活。”（哥林多前書15:21,22）。另見哥林多前書15:45,47;羅馬書5:12-21。世界上只有兩個代表人物：首先的人和末後的人; 首先的亞當和末後的亞當。所有人都肉生到亞當裡; 所有重生的人都進入基督裡。
a.在本性上是有罪的。（詩篇51:5） “我是在罪孽裡生的．在我母親懷胎的時候、就有了罪。”。以弗所書2:3; 創世紀6:5; 耶利米書17:9; 羅馬書8:7; 加拉太書5:19-21。
b.在行為上是有罪的。 “我們從前也是無知`悖逆`受迷惑`服事各樣私慾和宴樂`常存惡毒嫉妒的心`是可恨的`又是彼此相恨。”（提多書3:3）。另見羅馬書3:23 ;歌羅西書1:21; 詩篇14:1-3。
c.在罪中失喪了。（路加福音19:10） “人子來、為要尋找拯救失喪的人”。參見以賽亞書53:6; 哥林多後書4:3-4。
e.在神的忿怒下。（羅馬書1:18） “原來 神的忿怒、從天上顯明在一切不虔不義的人身上、就是那些行不義阻擋真理的人”。另見約翰福音3:36。
g.下地獄的確定 。（啟示錄20:15） “若有人名字沒記在生命冊上、他就被扔在火湖裡”。另見啟示錄21:8。
III. MAN IN HIS STATE OF GRACE
A. His Standing.
1. In Christ. As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (I Cor. 15:22). See also I Corinthians 15:21, 45, 47; Romans 5:12-21.
2. Of Perfection. “According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love. . . . To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved” (Eph. 1:4, 6). There are no charges against the Head; and, as that is so, there can be no charges against the Body.
2.算為完美無瑕疵的。 “就如 神從創立世界以前、在基督裡揀選了我們、使我們在他面前成為聖潔、無有瑕疵. . . .使他榮耀的恩典得著稱讚．這恩典是他在愛子裡所賜給我們的。”（以弗所書1:4,6）。而且，就這樣，對於頭沒有了指控; 對於身體也不會有任何指控了。
B. His State.
By this we mean his spiritual condition. This differs from the life of the unbeliever. In the believer’s life righteousness is present — the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ.
1. A New Creature. “If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away, behold, all things are become new” (II Cor. 5:17). See also 11 Peter 1:4; Galatians 6:15; John 3:16. Regeneration is a re-creation. Only God can create; only God can re-create.
2. Saved. “Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began” (Il Tim. 1:9). See also Ephesians 2:8,9.
3. Dead Unto Sin. “Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom. 6:11). “Who his ownself bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed” (I Peter 2:24).
4. Child of God. “As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name” (John 1:12). “Ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:26).
5. Under God’s Favor. “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ” (Eph. 1:3). See also Romans 5:2.
6. Waits for God and Glory. “Our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for theSaviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able to subdue all things unto himself” (Phil. 3:20,21).
7. Sure of Heaven. “The Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen” (II Tim. 4:18). See also I Peter 1:4.
這意味著他的屬靈情況。這與不信主之人的生命是有不同的。在信徒的生命中，有義在其中 – 主耶穌基督的義。
1.一個新造的人。 （哥林多後書5:17）“如果有人在基督裡，他就是一個新造的人：舊事已過，所有的事物都變成新的了”。又見彼得前書1:4; 加拉太書6:15; 約翰福音3:16。重生是一種重新再造。只有神才能創造;只有神才能重新再造。
3.向罪是死的。（羅馬書6:11） “這樣、你們向罪也當看自己是死的．向 神在基督耶穌裡、卻當看自己是活的”。 （彼得前書2:24）“他被掛在木頭上親身擔當了我們的罪、使我們既然在罪上死、就得以在義上活．因他受的鞭傷、你們便得了醫治。”。
4.是神的兒女。 （約翰福音1:12）“凡接待祂的、就是信他名的人、祂就賜他們權柄、作 神的兒女。”。（加拉太書3:26） “因信基督耶穌，你們都是神的兒女”。
5.蒙神的恩惠。（以弗所書1:3 新譯本） “我們主耶穌基督的父 神是應當稱頌的。他在基督裏，曾經把天上各種屬靈的福分賜給我們”。另見羅馬書5:2。
6.等候神與榮耀。（腓利比 3:20-21） “我們卻是天上的國民．並且等候救主`就是主耶穌基督`從天上降臨。他要按著那能叫萬有歸服自己的大能、將我們這卑賤的身體改變形狀、和他自己榮耀的身體相似。“
C. His Two Natures.
“The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would” (Gal. 5:17). The above Scriptures could not describe anyone but a saved man. The sinner has but one nature; the child of God has two natures. Every true believer has experienced the warfare of which Paul speaks. This warfare is best demonstrated by the household of Abraham. He had two sons — Ishmael, the older; and Isaac, the younger. Ishmael stands for that born of the flesh, while Isaac stands for that born of the Spirit. The trouble started when Isaac came into the household. Trouble comes into a Christian’s life when Christ enters in.
“肉體情慾和聖靈相爭、聖靈和肉體情慾相爭．這兩個是彼此相敵、使你們不能作所願意作的。”（加5:17）。上述經文是描述得救的人；除了得救的人之外，上述經文無法描述任何人。罪人只有一種本性;而神的兒女有兩種本性。每個真正的信徒都會經歷過保羅所說的爭戰。這個爭戰在亞伯拉罕的家庭裡最能看到例證。亞伯拉罕有兩個兒子 – 年長的以實瑪利;與年幼的以撒。以實瑪利代表從肉體生的，而以撒則代表從聖靈生的。這爭戰就開始於 從以撒出生到這家庭之時開始。當基督進入你的生命，屬靈生命與肉體情慾的爭戰就在基督徒的生命中開始了。
1. The Description of the Old Nature.
a. Names and Characteristics.
(1) The Flesh. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh” (John 3:6). See also Romans 7:18, 23; 8:9. By “the flesh” we do not mean “muscles and sinews,” which are part of the human body, but rather the carnal nature, which all possess at birth. There is no such thing as our being in the flesh; the flesh is in us. No man has ever begotten an unfallen man. “For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing” (Rom. 7:18a). See also John 6:63; Romans 8:8. There is no such thing as a person being born with a “divine spark” within them.
(2) The Natural Man. “The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (I Cor. 2:14). This is what man is by nature, by his natural birth.
(3) The Old Man. “Our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin” (Rom. 6:6). See also Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9. This is the man of old — what we once were: corrupt, full of evil desires and lusts.
(4) The Outward Man. “Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day” (II Cor. 4:16).
(5) The Heart. “From within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: all these evil things come from within, and defile the man” (Mark 7:21-23). We hear so much of man having a change of heart, but this is impossible, for only God can give a new heart.
(6) The Carnal Mind. “The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be” (Rom. 8:7).
(7) Sin. “By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Rom. 5:12). The word “sin” refers to the fallen nature of man, while “sins” refer to the actions of this nature.
b. The Character and End.
(1) It Is an Adam’s Nature. This means that Adam fell, and his children are, therefore, fallen children of a fallen father.
(2) It Is an Inherited Nature. We receive our fallen nature from Adam.
(3) It Is an Evil Nature. The eighth chapter of Romans is a commentary on this point.
(4) It Is an Unchangeable Nature. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh” (John 3:6a). As long as man lives, that fallen nature remains in him. It will be eradicated only at the resurrection of the dead in Christ, and the transformation of those alive in Christ, at His second appearing.
(5) Its End Is Death. “The wages of sin is death” (Rom. 6:23a). See also Romans 8:5-13.
（1）肉體。 “從肉身生的就是肉身”（約翰福音3：6）。另見羅馬書7:18,23; 8:9。講到過“肉身”，我們所指的意思並不是“肌肉和肌腱”的那些人體的一部分，而是血氣肉體的本性，這些都是從出生時就帶來的。並沒有我們是存在肉體中的這回事; 肉體是在我們裡面。沒有人曾生出一個沒有墮落原罪的人，(所有人都生而帶有著墮落本性)。 （羅馬書7:18a）“我也知道、在我裡頭、就是我肉體之中、沒有良善”。參見約翰福音6:63; 羅馬書8:8。沒有一個人生來在他們裡面就帶著有“神聖光輝” 的。
（2）屬血氣的人。（哥林多前書2:14） “然而屬血氣的人不領會 神聖靈的事、反倒以為愚拙．並且不能知道、因為這些事惟有屬靈的人纔能看透。”。因著本性人就是這樣，天生就是屬血氣。
（3）舊人。（羅馬書6:6） “因為知道我們的舊人`和祂同釘十字架`使罪身滅絕`叫我們不再作罪的奴僕”。以弗所書4:22; 歌羅西書3:9。這是一個舊的人 – 我們曾經是這樣的人：腐敗，充滿了邪惡的慾望和情慾。
（4）（哥林多後書4:16 新譯本）外面的人。 “所以，我們並不沮喪，我們外面的人雖然漸漸朽壞，但裏面的人卻日日更新”。
（6）肉體的意念。 “因為以肉體為念就是與 神為仇，既不服從 神的律法，也的確不能夠服從；”（羅馬書8:7 新譯本）。
（7）罪。 “正好像罪借著一個人入了世界，死又是從罪來的，所以死就臨到全人類，因為人人都犯了罪“（羅馬書5:12）。 “罪”這個詞指的是人的墮落本性，而“罪行”指的是這罪之本性的行為。
2. The Description of the New Nature.
a. Its Names and Characteristics.
(1) Spirit. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit” (John 3:6).
(2) Divine Nature. There “are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the correction that is in the world through lust” (II Peter 1:4). See also I John 3:9; 5:18, 19.
(3) The New Man. “Put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness” (Eph. 4:24). See also Colossians 3:10; II Corinthians 5:17.
(4) The Inward Man. “Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day” (II Cor. 4:16). “I delight in the law of God after the inward man” (Rom. 7:22). See also Ephesians 3:16.
(5) Mind. “I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God: but with the flesh the law of sin” (Rom. 7:25).
b. Its Character and End.
(1) It Is a Christly Nature.
(2) It Is An Imported Nature..
(3) It Is a Holy Nature.
(4) It Is an Unchangeable Nature.
(5) It Is Non-forfeited Nature.
Verses 1 and 2 of I John 2 ‘speak of the relation of the saint with the Father. Even when the saint sins it is a family matter.
(6) It’s End is Resurrection and Rapture. “Behold, I shew you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal shall put on immortality… But thanks be to God, which give us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ (I Cor. 15:51-53, 57).
（2）神的本性。 “接著這些，他把又寶貴又極大的應許賜給了我們，好叫你們既然逃脫世上因私欲而來的敗壞，就可以分享 神的本性。”（彼得後書1:4）。另見約翰一書3:9; 5:18,19。
（3）新人。 “並且穿上新人．這新人是照著 神的形像造的、有真理的仁義、和聖潔。”（以弗所書4:24）。另見歌羅西書3:10; 哥林多後書5:17。
（4）裡面的人。 “我們外在的人雖然漸漸朽壞,但裏面的人卻日日更新”（哥林多後書4:16）。 “按著我裏面的人來說,我是喜歡 神的律”（羅馬書7:22）。也見以弗所書3:16。
（5）心靈。 “感謝 神、靠著我們的主耶穌基督…. 這樣看來、我以內心順服 神的律．我肉體卻順服罪的律了。“（羅馬書7:25）。
（6）這本性的結局是復活和被提。 “看哪，我如今把一件奧秘的事告訴你們．我們不是都要睡覺、乃是都要改變、就在一霎時、眨眼之間、號筒末次吹響的時候．因號筒要響、死人要復活成為不朽壞的、我們也要改變。這必朽壞的、總要變成不朽壞的．這必死的、總要變成不死的。……感謝 神、使我們藉著我們的主耶穌基督得勝。”（林前15:51-53,57）。
3. The Conflict Between the Two Natures.
a. The Believer’s Experience. Every child of God has two natures; the unsaved man has only one nature. The old nature cannot be eradicated while the believer lives in the flesh; therefore, we have the fight between the old and new natures. “The flesh lust against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would” (Gal. 5: 17). Romans 7:15-25 is another marvelous example illustrating this truth. However, someone may declare that this passage shows the conflict in Paul’s life before he was saved, but one verse in this passage clearly reveals that this conflict, so vividly described, occurred after he was saved: “I delight in the law of God after the inward man” (Rom. 7:22). No unsaved man ever delights after the law of God. Also, only the saved man has the inward man,which is the new nature.
a.信徒的經歷。神的每一個孩子都有兩種本性;未得救的人只有一種本性。當信徒在肉體裡面而活時，舊的老我本性是無法被根除的; 因此，我們會有新本性與舊本性之間的相互爭戰。（加拉太書5:17） “因為肉體情慾和聖靈相爭、聖靈和肉體情慾相爭．這兩個是彼此相敵、使你們不能作所願意作的。”。羅馬書7:15-25是另一個很棒的例子，說明了這個真理。然而，有人可能會宣稱這段經文顯示的是保羅在他得救之前，生活中的衝突；但這段經文中有一節經文清楚的揭示出，這個如此生動被描述出來的衝突，是在他得救之後才發生的，即（羅馬書7:22）：“因為按著我裡面的人，我是喜歡 神的律．”。從來沒有未得救的人會喜歡神的律的。而且，只有得救後的人才有‘裡面的人’，這是在得救之後才有的新本性。
b. The Believer’s Responsibility.
(1) In Relation To the Old Nature.
(a) Accept God’s Estimate of It. “Our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. For he that is dead is freed from sin. Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him: knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom.6:6-11). This one truth must be pointed out: the old man is never said to be crucified in the believer, but is crucified with Christ. It is a reality! Accept it! It is not a matter of feeling, but one of faith. All of this truth is according to God’s view. As for the believer’s view, he knows that the old nature, the old man, is not dead; he is very much alive. The Scripture says, “Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin.” If the old nature were actually dead, the believer would not have to reckon him so; he would know.
(b) Make No Provision for the Flesh. “Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof (Rom.13:14). In other words, do not feed the flesh. Starve it.
(c) Mortify the Flesh. “Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry” (Col. 3:5). A stronger term is, “Put to death, therefore, your members.” The words “as good as dead” (Heb. 11:12) are the same terminology.
(d) Never Try to Improve It. “Neither yield your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God” (Rom. 6:13).
(e) Put It Off. “Put off concerning the form of conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts” (Eph. 4:22). The same word is translated “laid down” in Acts 7:58.
（a）接受神對舊人的稱量。 “因為知道我們的舊人和他同釘十字架，使罪身滅絕，叫我們不再作罪的奴仆。因為已死的人，是脫離了罪。我們若是與基督同死，就信必與他同活。因為知道基督既從死裏復活，就不再死，死也不再作他的主了。他死是向罪死了，只有一次。他活是向神活著。這樣，你們向罪也當看自己是死的。向神在基督耶穌裏卻當看自己是活的。”（羅馬書6:6-11）。這一個真理必須被指出來：聖經從未說舊人要被釘十字架，而是說已經與基督同釘十字架了。這是個現實！你要接受！這不是與感覺有關的事，而是與信仰有關的。所有這些真理都是根據神的觀點。至於從信徒的觀點來看，信徒知道自己老我本性-舊人，並沒有死; 他的老我非常活躍。而聖經說：“你們向罪也當看自己是死的。” （羅馬書6:11) 如果舊的本性已經實際上死了，那麼信徒就不必這麼努力的要把自己的舊人當成是死了那樣。他自然會知道的。
（c）治死肉體。 “所以要治死你們在地上的肢體．就如淫亂、污穢、邪情、惡慾、和貪婪、貪婪就與拜偶像一樣。“（歌羅西書3：5）。這個強有力的說法，“治死你的肢體。” 與（希伯來書11:12）的“彷彿已死” 是帶有相同意思的詞彙。
（d）绝不試圖去改善舊本性。 “不要將你們的肢體獻給罪作不義的器具．倒要像從死裡復活的人、將自己獻給 神．並將肢體作義的器具獻給 神。”（羅馬書6:13）。
(2) In Relation to the New Nature.
(a) Reckon Ourselves to Be Alive. “Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom. 6:11).
(b) Walk in Newness of Life. “We are his workmanship, created unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them” (Eph. 2:10). See also Romans 6:14; 7:6.
(c) Feed and Nourish It. “As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby” (I Peter 2:2). We are to feed the new nature by the exposition of the Word, and not by the exhortation of man. We know we have two natures, and it is well to consider that the food for one will starve the other. It is the individual Christian who must decide which man, the old or the new, shall be fed. He cannot feed both at the same time.
(d) Put On the New Man. “Put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness” (Eph. 4:24).
(e) Depend Upon the Indwelling Spirit for Power. “Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption” (Eph. 4:30). “My brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might” (Eph. 6:10). “Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the LORD of hosts” (Zech. 4:6b).
（a）看自己是活的。 “你們向罪也當看自己是死的．向 神在基督耶穌裡、卻當看自己是活的。”（羅馬書6:11）。
（b）在新生命裡行事為人。 “我們原是祂的工作、在基督耶穌裡造成的、為要叫我們行善、就是 神所預備叫我們行的。”（以弗所書2:10）。另見羅馬書6:14; 7:6。
（c）餵養新本性。 “就要愛慕那純淨的靈奶、像才生的嬰孩愛慕奶一樣、叫你們因此漸長、以致得救．”（彼得前書2:2）。我們要通過聖經的話語來餵養新的本性，而不是通過人的勸勉來餵養新的本性。我們知道我們有兩種本性，要好好思考，將食物餵養其中的一種本性會造成另一種本性的挨餓。每一個基督徒必須決定要餵養你自己的哪種人- 是舊人還是新人。他不能同時餵兩個本性。
（d）穿上新人。（以弗所書4:24） “並且穿上新人。這新人是照著 神的形像造的、有真理的仁義、和聖潔。”。
（e）依靠內住的靈得能力。 “不要叫 神的聖靈擔憂。你們原是受了他的印記、等候得贖的日子來到。”（以弗所書4:30）。 “弟兄們， 你們要靠著主、倚賴他的大能大力、作剛強的人。”（以弗所書6:10）。 “萬軍之耶和華說、不是倚靠勢力、不是倚靠才能、乃是倚靠我的靈、方能成事”（撒迦利亞書4:6b）。