教會論 Ecclesiology – 論到教會的教義
聖經教義 – 有關的重要信仰
作者： 馬可. 坎布朗 ，神學博士 Mark G. Cambron, D.D.
OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER VII 第七章 教會論的大綱
I. The Meaning of the Word. 壹. 教會這詞的意思
II. The Use of the Word. 貳. 教會這詞的使用
III. What the Church Is Not. 叁. 教會不是什麼。
IV. What the Church Is. 肆. 教會是什麼.
A. A Mystery. 教會是個奧秘。
B. A Body. 教會是一個身體
C. A Building. 教會是個建造。
D. A Bride. 教會是主的新婦
V. The Gifts to the Body. 伍. 給基督身體-教會的恩賜
VI. The Local Church. 陸. 地方的教會
VII. Discipline in the Church. 柒. 教會裡的管教
VIII. Ordinances in the Church. 捌. 教會裡的條令
A. Baptism. 洗禮
B. Lord’s Supper. 主的晚餐/聖餐/
Chapter VII 第七章
Ecclesiology is the doctrine of the Church. 教會論是論到教會的教義
I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD
The word “church” does not mean the building in which the congregation meets; neither is it as the Catholics say, the Papal system. Others contend that it is a company, or a club, just an organization. The Church is not an organization, but an organism.
The following may surprise most students of the Word, but nevertheless, it is true. The word “church” cannot be found in the New Testament. The word “church,” is a rendition, and not a translation. This same word “church” is a rendition of the word ecclesia, which means a called-out company, or assembly. If we should call Bible things by Bible names correctly, we would call it the assembly of God in Christ, instead of the Church of God in Christ.
The word ecclesia always means a called-out company, or assembly. It refers to all classes of people; it is not limited to believers in Christ. There are three references in the Bible that refer to three different kinds of people. None of them are related, yet they are called-out companies, or assemblies.
以下的話可能會讓大多數的神學生對聖經感到驚訝，但即便如此，這是真的。就是，在新約聖經的原文找不到“church”這個詞。 “Church (教會)”這詞是一個描述，而不是翻譯。“Church（教會）”這個名詞是對原文ecclesia這個字的描述，這字(ecclesia)的意思為被呼召出來的一群人或會眾。如果我們要正確地用聖經名稱來稱聖經事物的話，我們會稱它為‘神在基督裡召來的會眾’，而不是‘神在基督裡的教會’。
A. A Mob.
“When Paul would have entered in unto the people, the disciples suffered him not, And certain of the chief of Asia, which were his friends, sent unto him, desiring him that he would not adventure himself to the theater. Some therefore cried one thing, and some another: for the assembly[ecclesia: that is a mob, and not believers] was confused; and the more part knew not wherefore they were come together…And when the town clerk had appeased the people, he said. . . . Ye have brought hither these men, which are neither robbers of churches [this word means temple; it is not from the word ecclesia], nor yet blasphemers of your goddess. . . . But if ye inquire anything concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly [this is the same word ecclesia, and does not mean believers] . . . . And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly [again the word ecclesia]” (Acts19:30-32, 35, 37, 39, 41).
B. The Children of Israel.
Certainly the children of Israel were a called-out company from Egypt, but we know that they were not the body of Christ. Christ had not been manifested in the flesh as yet. “This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers who received the lively oracles to give unto us” (Acts 7:38).
C. The Body of Christ.
By this we mean the body of believers in the Lord Jesus. The New Testament abounds with references to the ecclesia, the called-out company, or assembly, from the world to Christ. The following are a few: God “hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church [ecclesia, meaning called-out company, or assembly], which is his body, the fulness of him that fill all in all” (Eph. 1:22, 23). “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church [ecclesia, meaning called-out company or assembly], and gave himself for it. . . . This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church [ecclesia, meaning called-out company, or assembly]” (Eph. 5:25, 32).
使徒行傳19章“保羅想要進去、到百姓那裡、門徒卻不許他去。還有亞西亞幾位首領、是保羅的朋友、打發人來勸他、不要冒險到劇場裡去。聚集的人[ecclesia：那是一群人，而不是信徒]、紛紛亂亂、有喊叫這個的、有喊叫那個的、大半不知道是為甚麼聚集。…. 那城裡的書記、安撫了眾人、就說…你們把這些人帶來、他們並不是偷竊神廟[church這字的意思為temple廟堂;它並不是來自於ecclesia這個字] 之物的劫匪、也沒有謗讟你們的女神。… 你們若問別的事、就應該在一個合法的集會[這與ecclesia是同一個字，並不代表信徒]中謀求解決。…. 說了這話、便叫眾人散去[再一次，這裡的眾人，其原文是ecclesia這字] ”（使徒行傳19:30-32,35,37,39,41）。
II. THE USE OF THE WORD
Knowing that the word “church” is a rendition from the Greek, ecclesia, meaning called-out company, or assembly, we shall turn our attention to those portions of Scripture dealing with the body of believers. The word ecclesia is used in the following ways:
A. A Local Assembly (church).
“Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians….” (I Thess. 1:1). “Unto the church of God which is at Corinth . . .“ (I Cor. 1:2).
B. Local Assemblies (churches).
This has reference to several local bodies. “Paul . . . and all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia: Grace be to you and peace” (Gal. 1:1-3).
C. The Body of Living Believers (unnumbered).
We must explain that by this we mean a group of believers, living in a certain section, without reference to a local assembly, and without number. For instance, a minister may speak of theChurch of Chicago, the Church of Denver, etc. we immediately know that he is referring to all Christian believers in these cities. The best illustration in the Word is: “Ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews’ religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the churchof God, and wasted it” (Gal. 1:13). Saul (Paul) did not limit his persecution to one certain assembly, or several local assemblies. He went everywhere, hailing into prison, and voting the death penalty for the early Christians. He considered all Christians as The Church.
D. The Complete Body of Christ.
The complete body of Christ is called the Church, and is composed of all believers from Pentecost to the Rapture. “Husbands, love your wives even as Christ also loved the church, and gave Himself for it” (Eph. 5:25).
知道了“教會”這個詞是從希臘文ecclesia 這字的詮釋而來-‘意思是被召喚出來的一群人或召會’之後，我們就要把注意轉到聖經裡談到信眾群體的那些經文上了。 ecclesia這個字在底下的幾個情況下被使用：
“保羅`西拉`提摩太、寫信給帖撒羅尼迦在父 神和主耶穌基督裡的教會. . .”（帖撒羅尼迦前書1:1）。 ““寫信給哥林多 神的教會. . . .”（哥林多前書1:2）。
這經文有提到幾個地方團體。如（加拉太書1:1-3） “作使徒的保羅…和一切與我同在的眾弟兄、寫信給加拉太的各教會。願恩惠平安… 歸與你們。”。
III. WHAT THE CHURCH IS NOT
A. The Church Is Not Israel.
“Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God” (I Cor. 10:32). Here is revealed that there are three classes of people today: Jew, Gentile and Church. When a Jew is saved, he ceases to be a Jew, and becomes a Christian. When a Gentile accepts Christ, he ceases to be a Gentile, and becomes a Christian. “As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:27-29). The Church (Body of Christ) is not spiritual Israel: “He is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twainone new man, so making peace” (Eph. 2:14, 15). The Body of Christ (Church) is a new man, and not Israel, whether spiritual Israel or revived Israel.
B. The Church Is Not the Kingdom.
1. No heirs of the Church.
2. No receiver of the Church.
3. There are elders of the Church.
4. No Sons of the Church.
5. Church called a temple (Eph. 2:21).
6. Church is here.
7. Church was never a subject of prophecy (Eph. 3: 5,9).
8. Church is to be built up (Eph. 4:12).
1. The Church is heir of the kingdom.
2. The Church is the receiver of the kingdom.
3. No elders of the kingdom.
4. Sons of the kingdom.
5. Kingdom never called a temple.
6. Kingdom is not here, for the King is not present (Matt. 6:10).
7. Kingdom is the one subject of prophecy.
8. Kingdom is to be set up (Acts 15:16).
（哥林多前書10:32）“不拘是猶太人、是希利尼人、是 神的教會、你們都不要使他跌倒”。在這裡就透露出當今有三類人：猶太人，外邦人和教會。當一個猶太人得救之後，他就不再是猶太人了，而是成為基督徒了。當外邦人接受了主基督，他就不再是外邦人了`他就成為基督徒了。（加拉太書3:27-29）說 “你們受洗歸入基督的、都是披戴基督了。並不分猶太人、希利尼人、自主的、為奴的、或男或女．因為你們在基督耶穌裡都成為一了。你們既屬乎基督、就是亞伯拉罕的後裔、是照著應許承受產業的了”。。。教會（基督的身體）不是屬靈的以色列人：“因（耶穌基督）祂使我們和睦〔祂是我們的和睦〕，將兩下合而為一、拆毀了中間隔斷的牆。而且以自己的身體、廢掉冤仇、就是那記在律法上的規條。為要將兩下、藉著自己造成一個新人、如此便成就了和睦”（以弗所書2:14-15）。基督的身體（教會）是新造的人，而不是以色列人，無論是屬靈的以色列人還是被更新了的以色列人。
IV. WHAT THE CHURCH IS
A. It Is a Mystery.
“By revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit; that the Gentiles should be fellow heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel. . . . And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ” (Eph. 3:3-6,9). A “mystery” in Scripture means a “truth revealed for the first time.” In the above verses, the Holy Spirit shows us that The Church (Body of Christ) was first revealed to the Apostle Paul, and that it was not known by the Old Testament prophets. The truth of The Church was not hidden in Old Testament writings, but was hid in God.
（以弗所書3:3-6,9）“藉著啟示使我可以知道這奧秘，(就像我以前在信中略略提過的。你們讀了，就可以知道我深深地明白基督的奧秘。) 這奧秘在以前的世代並沒有讓世人知道，不像現在藉著聖靈啟示了聖使徒和先知那樣。這奧秘就是外族人在基督耶穌裏，藉著福音可以同作後嗣，同為一體，同蒙應許. . . . 又使眾人都明白、這歷代以來隱藏在創造萬物之神裡的奧秘、是如何安排的“（以弗所書3:3-6,9）。經文裡說的一個“奧秘”意思為一個“真理頭一次被啟示出來”。在上面的經文中，聖靈告訴我們，教會（基督的身體）最初是被啟示給使徒保羅的，而舊約的先知並不知道這奧秘。教會的這真理並不是隱藏在舊約的著作裡面，而是藏在上帝裡面的。
B. It Is the Body of Which Christ Is the Head.
“As the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many,are one body: so also is (the) Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. For the body is not one member, but many. . . . That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another. And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honored, all the members rejoice with it. Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular” (I Cor. 12:12-14, 25-27).
The Body is an organism composed of many members. All members do not have the same function. The Church is not a physical body, but a spiritual body. Believers in Christ are made members of that spiritual body by the Spirit’s baptism. There are those who hold that I Corinthians 12:13 is speaking of water baptism, but this argument can easily be refuted by another Scripture. I Corinthians 12:13 says that we are made members of the Body by baptism(Spirit’s), while Ephesians 3:6 declares we are made members of that Body by the Gospel. Both are correct. If I Corinthians 12:13 speaks of water baptism, then water baptism is an essential part of the Gospel of Ephesians 3:6. We know, however, that water baptism has no part in the Gospel whatsoever. The Gospel is the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ (I Cor. 15:1-4).
As is true of the physical body, so it is of the spiritual Body; when one member of the Body suffers, all members suffer with it. Not one Christian can suffer persecution without the whole Body hurting also. One member cannot grieve, but that the whole Body grieves with it. When the Body suffers, the Head also suffers. When we are persecuted, Christ is also persecuted: “Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?” (Acts 9:4).
Remember that the Body is an organism and must be considered as such. A building, for example, can be repaired by replacing old doors and windows, and the like, with new ones, but when part of a body is removed, such as an arm, leg, eye, and the like, the part can never be replaced. If it were possible for a member of the Body of Christ to lose his salvation, then the Body of Christ would be mutilated, and this could never happen. The following are four characteristics of the Body of Christ:
1. Oneness. A body is one, a complete whole, an organic unity. So is the Body of Christ.
2. Deathlessness. The Body of Christ will never die, for it is connected with a living Head.
3. Manifestation. The one purpose of the Body of Christ is to manifest, or reveal Christ. “To me to live is Christ, and to die is gain” (Phil. 1:21). “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ live in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me” (Gal. 2:20).
4. Service. The thoughts and the plans of the head are to be carried out by the body. Likewise, the Body of Christ is to carry out the will of its Head, the Lord Jesus Christ. What He commands we must do. His will shall govern our movements.
“就如身子是一個、卻有許多肢體、而且肢體雖多、仍是一個身子．基督也是這樣。我們不拘是猶太人、是希利尼人、是為奴的、是自主的、都從一位聖靈受洗、成了一個身體。飲於一位聖靈。原來身體有許多肢體，並不是只有一個肢體. . . 好使肢體能夠互相照顧，免得身體上有了分裂。如果一個肢體受苦，所有的肢體就一同受苦；如果一個肢體得榮耀，所有的肢體就一同快樂。你們就是基督的身體，並且每一個人都是作肢體的。”（歌林多前書12:12-14,25-27）。
3.彰顯的。基督身體的一個目的是去彰顯`或去顯明基督。 “我活著就是基督，我死了就有益處”（腓利比書1:21）。 “我已經與基督同釘十架．現在活著的、不再是我、乃是基督在我裡面活著．並且我如今在肉身活著、是因信 神的兒子而活、他是愛我、為我捨己。”（加拉太書2:20）。
C. It Is a Building.
“Ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God; and are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto a holy temple in the Lord: in whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit” (Eph. 2:19-22).
The apostles and New Testament prophets are the foundation of the Building (Church). They were the first ones to believe in the Lord Jesus, and they were the first ones to proclaim the Lord Jesus.
“Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ” (I Peter 2:5). We believers are living stones of this new building of God. When the temple of old was erected, there was no sound of hammer, chisel, or saw. All materials were formed beforehand. So are we, for we were selected before the foundation of the earth was laid. The inside stones of the temple could not be seen, for they were covered with cedarwood and gold. Only the gold could be seen. We, the living stones of theBuilding of God, are not to be seen. Christ only is to be seen.
The building was erected of different colored stones; even so the Building of God is composed of black, red, yellow and white races. God dwelt in the temple, and He abides in us.
（以弗所書2:19-22）“這樣、你們不再作外人、和客旅、是與聖徒同國、是 神家裡的人了．並且被建造在使徒和先知的根基上、有基督耶穌自己為房角石．各房靠他聯絡得合式、漸漸成為主的聖殿。你們也靠他同被建造成為 神藉著聖靈居住的所在”。
D. It Is the Bride.
Some have contended that the Bride of Christ is the same as the Wife of Jehovah, who is Israel. However, there is one Scripture which disproves this theory, and that is Revelation 22:17: “The Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.” The above passage declares that the Spirit and the Bride are extending the invitation to sinners to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. If the Bride is Israel, then it is the Spirit and Israel extending the invitation. We know that is not true, for the greater part of Israel is in unbelief today. Who is inviting, or urging people to accept Christ? It is the Church, not Israel. Therefore, the Bride is the Church, the Body of believers.
Ephesians 5:25-32 clearly points to the fact that husband and wife have the same relationship as that of Christ and His Bride, the Church. Especially we see this in verses 28-30: “So ought men to love their own wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. For no man ever yet hateth his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the Church: For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.”
1. The Bride Is Purchased By Christ. “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it” (Eph. 5:25). See also I Corinthians 6:19, 20. In the Orient men purchased their wives; the price became her dowry. Christ bought his Church with His own precious blood. His blood is her dowry forever!
2. The Bride Is Espoused to Christ. “I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ” (II Cor. 11:2). The Oriental marriage differs greatly from marriage as we know it. The Eastern custom of marriage took place after the following manner: First, the bride was bought (we have been bought by Christ); second, the ceremony was performed, inaugurating the espousal period, which lasted about a year. During this time the bride was considered the wife of her husband, yet they did not live together. The one year waiting period was protection of the future home. If there were any blemishes against the character and conduct of the bride, they would come to light during this time. The Bride of Christ is now in her espousal period. During this interval the blemishes of the Bride, if any, will certainly manifest themselves. History has proved that there have been many who have had the form of godliness, but have denied the power thereof. These blemishes (these men) vanish away; finally comes the consummation of the marriage.
3. The Bride Is Married to Christ. “Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints” (Rev. 19:7, 8). “Then shall the Realm of heaven be compared to ten maidens who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom and the bride” (Matt. 25:1 — Moffatt). This is the consummation of Christ’s marriage to His Church. The espousal period is over; she is now with her husband, and so shall she ever be with Him (I Thess. 4:17).
有些人爭辯說，基督的新婦（新娘）是與耶和華的妻子一樣，即以色列。然而，有一節經文證明了這個論點是錯誤的，那就是啟示錄22:17：“聖靈和新婦都說來。聽見的人也該說 “來”。口渴的人也當來．願意的都可以白白取生命的水喝“。上述的經文宣布了聖靈和新婦是在邀請罪人來相信主耶穌。可是，如果新婦是以色列的話，那麼就會是聖靈和以色列在發出邀請。但我們知道並不是這樣，因為現今大部分的以色列人都不信耶穌基督。那麼，是誰在邀請`敦促人來接受耶穌基督呢？是教會在邀請! 而不是以色列人在邀請。因此，新婦是教會，即全體信徒們。
2.新婦被許配給基督。（哥林多後書11:2） “我以 神的熱愛愛你們，因為我把你們獻給基督，好像把貞潔的童女許配給一個丈夫”（新譯本）。就我們所知，東方人的結婚與西方人的結婚方式有很大不同。東方的婚姻習俗是在以下的方式下進行的：首先，新娘被聘禮買赎（我們被基督買赎）;第二，舉行儀式，持續大約一年的訂婚期。在此期間，新娘被認定是丈夫的妻子，但他們沒有住在一起。一年的等待期是對未來家庭的保護。如果新娘的性格和行為有任何瑕疵的話，這些缺點會在這段時間內曝露出來。基督的新婦現在是處於她的特殊時期。在這段時間內，新婦的瑕疵（如果有的話）肯定會顯現出來。歷史證明，有許多人是有敬虔的模樣，但卻抵擋與敬虔相關的大能。基督新婦的這些瑕疵（即教會裡這些徒有敬虔外貌的人）消失不見之後; 終於，基督與祂新娘的婚禮就完滿的實現了。
3.基督來迎娶新婦。 “我們要歡喜快樂，把榮耀歸給祂！因為羊羔的婚期到了；他的新娘也自己預備好了。並且有光潔的細麻衣，賜給她穿上；這細麻衣就是聖徒的義行。”（啟示錄19:7,8）。 “那時、天國好比十個童女、拿著燈、出去迎接新郎。”（馬太福音25:1）。這是基督娶祂教會的完成。這個訂婚時期結束了;新娘現在和她的丈夫在一起，所以教會也將與基督永遠在一起（帖撒羅尼迦前書4:17）。
V. THE GIFTS TO THE BODY
“Unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore he saith, When He ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. . . . And he gave some apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers” (Eph. 4:7, 8, 11).
This was the first gift to the Church (Body). Upon the Apostles was built the early Church. The word “apostle” in the Greek is the same as the word “missionary” in Latin, meaning “the sent one.” Of course, the Church has missionaries (sent ones) today, but no apostles.
To these men God gave His revelations. At the first, the Church did not have the New Testament, yet it needed to know the doctrines of God; therefore, God gave to men His unwritten Word; these in turn gave it to the people. The Church has no prophets today for we have God’s complete revealed truth, the New Testament.
Another gift to the Church was evangelists. These men fervently heralded the Gospel. They were men of humility, burdened for the lost. The pastor is told to do the work of an evangelist (II Tim. 4:5). The day of the evangelist is not over, and will not be until Christ comes to reign upon the earth.
D. Pastors and Teachers.
The word “pastor” means “shepherd.” The pastor is to be the shepherd of his sheep, looking after his flock, weeping and rejoicing with them. The crying need of the Church today is for pastors. Blessed is the man who has a pastor’s heart. A pastor is not only called to preach three sermons a week, but he is called to pastor, shepherd, look after, care for, visit, love, protect, instruct the sheep. Every pastor, while doing the work of an evangelist, which is winning souls, should also be one who is able to teach the Word to his flock. Where will the church members get the Word if not from the pastor? All of the truth some people will get will be at a Sunday service.
Some distinguish between the pastor and the teacher, believing that there are those who are called only to be teachers. This may be so, but we know that all pastors are to be teachers also. All teachers may not be pastors, but all pastors must be teachers.
“我們各人蒙恩、都是照基督所量給各人的恩賜。所以經上說、他升上高天的時候、擄掠了仇敵、將各樣的恩賜賞給人 . . . . 他所賜的有使徒、有先知．有傳福音的．有牧師和教師．為要成全聖徒、各盡其職、建立基督的身體． ”（以弗所書4:7-8,11-12）。
VI. THE LOCAL CHURCH
While we believe that the Body of Christ is composed of all believers from Pentecost to the Rapture, we do stress the importance of the local church, or assembly. The local assembly is the physical body by which the Body (Church) is manifested. God stresses the importance of the local church by giving it officers and ordinances. He who is ashamed of the local assembly is ashamed of that which was established at Pentecost. The local church, as well as the Body of Christ, was established at Pentecost.
A. Its Organization.
The Scriptures indicate that there was some organization, but not as that today. It was not copied after the synagogue. It was entirely different.
B. Its Officers.
1. Deacons. I Timothy 3:8-13 gives the requirements for deacons. The deacons were not chosen to run the church, but to minister to the church.
2. Bishops and Elders. There is a vast difference between the early Church and that of today as to bishops. The early Church had many bishops in one local church; today, we have one bishop over many local churches. The elders were called by that name because they were the oldest in the family. If the father were dead, the first son took his place. An elder was an elderly man. Titus 1:5-7 says, “For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I appointed thee: if any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly. For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre.” According to this, the elder and bishop were the same. The word “elder” refers to the person, while the word “bishop” refers to the office. Every bishop was an elder, but every elder was not a bishop. The word “bishop” means “overseer.” The “overseers” of the local churches were old men. This group of bishops composed what is known as the presbytery (Titus, 1:5).
C. Its Purpose.
The purpose of the Church is to glorify God in the building up of the Body of Christ in the holy faith; and to spread the Gospel to the ends of the earth, winning, baptizing, teaching.
2.監督與長老。有關於主教（關於監督），早期的教會與今天的教會存有巨大的差異。早期的教會在一個地方教會中有多位監督（多位主教）; 而今天，是有一位主教監督著許多的地方教會。長老這個名稱被這樣的稱呼，是因他們是家裡最年長的。如果父親死了，大兒子就接下他的位置。一位長老是一位老年人。提多書1:5-7 說：“我從前留你在革哩底、是要你將那沒有辦完的事都辦整齊了、又照我所吩咐你的、在各城設立長老．若有無可指責的人、只作一個婦人的丈夫、兒女也是信主的、沒有人告他們是放蕩不服約束的、就可以設立。監督既是 神的管家、必須無可指責、不任性、不暴躁、不因酒滋事、不打人、不貪無義之財”.
根據這經文，長老與監督是一樣的。 “長老”這詞指的是人，而“監督”一詞指的是職位。每個監督（主教）都是長老，但不是每個長老都是監督。 “主教”這詞的意思為“監督者”。地方教會的“監督者”是長老。這群監督們（主教們）組成了所謂的長老會（提多書1:5 ）。
VII. DISCIPLINE IN THE LOCAL CHURCH
Even though it is true that the Church is under grace rather than law, the flesh is still in the believer, and the Lord has laid down rules of discipline for His local church. There were three steps in Church discipline, and they are as follows:
A. Judgment By Self.
“If we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged” (I Cor. 11:31). The believer knows when he has sinned and should immediately confess it to God (I John 1:9). If he confesses that sin, he has judged himself. It is forgiven, and he shall never be judged for it again. Let us stress the word “confess” however. Confess does not mean to admit it, that is, to own up to it; that is implied, but it goes deeper than that. It means to take one’s stand against.
B. Judgment By the Church.
If a sinning brother will not judge himself, then he must be judged by the local church. I Corinthians 5:11, 12 says “I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolator, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within?” Yes, fellowship in the local church should be withheld from the erring brother as judgment. Some term this “back-door revival.” This extreme judgment should be meted out only after the effort to restore him. “Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness: Considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted” (Gal. 6:1).
C. Judgment By God.
If the fallen brother does not judge himself, and the Church will not judge him, then God will judge him through chastisement (Heb. 12:5-13).
“我們若是先分辨自己、就不至於受審”（哥林多前書11:31）（ 新譯本的翻譯為）“我們若是先省察自己、就不至於受審判了”。信徒知道當自己犯了罪，就應該立即向上帝認罪（約翰一書1:9）。如果他認了那個罪，他就已經審判自己了。就被饒恕了，絕不會再受到審判。但是，我們要凸顯這個詞“認罪”來強調。認罪並不意味著承認犯了而已，也就是說，不僅僅是承認有而已; 那是隱晦（沒有表態的），但認罪要比那更深入。認罪意味著採取立場要抵擋罪。
因為審判教外的人與我何干。教內的人豈不是你們審判的麼 ？”. . . 是的，應該禁止在犯罪中的弟兄與當地的教會團契，作為對他的審判。有些人稱這種做法為“後門復興”(或，受祝福的消減）。這極端嚴厲的審判只有在重建他的各種努力無效之後才執行。（加拉太書6:1） “弟兄們、若有人偶然被過犯所勝、你們屬靈的人、就當用溫柔的心、把他挽回過來．又當自己小心、恐怕也被引誘。”。
VIII. ORDINANCES IN THE LOCAL CHURCH
The Church has two ordinances: baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Baptism is observed at the beginning of the Christian life; the Lord’s Supper is taken all during the Christian life. We emphasize the fact that these are ordinances of the Church, and not sacraments.
Baptism is from the Greek word baptizo, meaning to dip, to plunge, to immerse for the purpose of dying. It can never mean sprinkling, or pouring.
1. Obligation (Matt. 28:18-20; Rom. 6:1-6; Col. 2:12). All believers are obliged to be baptized. One does not have to pray about it to seek God’s will in the matter. The Lord has commanded it.
2. Administration. Nearly every denomination, with the exception of some local Baptist groups, demands that their ministers, who administer the ordinance of baptism, must be ordained.
3. Explanation. Baptism is a public declaration of faith in Christ by the believer before man. It is his outward demonstration of an inward act, and is a picture of the death, burial and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ. Immersion fully portrays the place of death; there are some people, even today, who have met actual physical death after coming up out of the baptismal waters. Those who have come out of other religions evaluate the ordinance of baptism more highly than those who have been raised in Christian homes. Not only does baptism show the death, burial and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, but it also shows the believer’s identification with Christ. Baptism is his full declaration of his own death in Christ (II Cor. 5:14): dead to sin, dead to self and dead to the old life. It is also his declaration of being raised with Christ, after burying the old life, to walk in newness of life with Him.
The baptism of all believers, as recorded in the Word, pictures the death, burial and resurrection of Christ. The baptism of John the Baptist looked forward to Christ’s death and resurrection, and our baptism today looks back to the death and resurrection of our Lord.
It is not a saving ordinance. Man is saved by faith alone. This occurs before baptism. It is true, however, that baptism is a public declaration of faith before man, and God looks not upon the baptismal waters, but upon the heart of man.
4. Participation. Who should be baptized? I believe only the believer! “He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned” (Mark 16:16). Faith is first, then baptism. Again the question arises, “Does man have to be baptized to be saved?” No, for this Scripture says that he that believeth not shall be damned. If water baptism were essential, the Lord would have added these words, “He that is not baptized is damned.” The Apostle Paul, in writing to the Corinthians said, “I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius. . . . For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be of none effect” (I Cor. 1:14, 17). If baptism were necessary for salvation, Paul would not have boasted in the fact that he had baptized so few. He plainly states that baptism had nothing to do with the Gospel (Rom. 1:16), for Christ had sent him not to baptize, but to preach.
It is impossible to baptize an unbeliever, for if he is an unbeliever before he is immersed, he will be an unbeliever when he comes out of the baptismal waters.
What is the age limit for baptism? Some parents contend that twelve years of age is the youngest age at which a child should be baptized. This has no Scriptural foundation whatsoever. It may be a carry-over from the Jewish custom of adoption. The Word clearly states that baptism is for all believers, regardless of age or sex.
1.洗禮的義務。（馬太福音28:18-20; 羅馬書6:1-6; 歌羅西書2:12）。所有的信徒都有義務必須受洗。你不必為這個要受洗與否向神禱告去尋求上帝的旨意。主已經命令了，信的人要受洗。
3.洗禮的解釋。洗禮是信徒在人前對自己信入基督的公開宣告。這是他內在行為的外在展示，是主耶穌基督的死，埋葬和復活的一幅畫面。 完全的浸入水里描繪出死的被埋; 在今日，有些人從洗禮的水域出來後，甚至還實際的遭遇了身體的死亡。那些從其他宗教中出來而相信主耶穌的人，比那些在基督徒家中長大的人更看重洗禮的條令。不僅因為洗禮表明了主耶穌基督的死，埋葬和復活，而且更是表明信徒的認證，與基督一同死了`被埋了又復活了。洗禮是他自己在基督裡死了的完全宣告（哥林多後書5:14）：向罪死，向自己死，向老我生命死了。也是埋葬了舊生命之後，他與基督一同復活的宣告，在新生命裡與主同行。
4.洗禮的參與。誰應該受洗？我相信只有信的人才應該受洗！（馬可福音16:16） “信而受洗的必然得救。不信的必被定罪”。信仰在先，然後才是洗禮。那，問題再次出現了，“人必須受洗才能得救嗎？”… 答案為：不，因為這段經文是說不信的人要被定罪。如果水的洗禮是必不可少的話，主會加上這句，“沒受洗的人要被定罪”。使徒保羅寫信給哥林多教會的書信說：“我感謝 神、除了基利司布並該猶以外、我沒有給你們一個人施洗 . . . . 基督差遣我、原不是為施洗、乃是為傳福音．並不用智慧的言語、免得基督的十字架落了空。”（哥林多前書1:14,17）。如果洗禮是救贖所必需的，那麼保羅就不會誇口事實上他只給這麼少的人施洗過。他平鋪直敘的說，洗禮與福音無關（羅馬書1:16），因為基督差遣他並不是要去施洗，而是要他去傳道/去傳福音的。（這福音本是 神的大能、要救一切相信的。）
B. Lord’s Supper.
“I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup” (I Cor.11:23-28).
1. Origination. From the above Scriptures little doubt is left as to who instituted the Lord’s Supper. There is no record of this ordinance being held before the Lord Jesus inaugurated it. We, as it were, take the bread and the cup from His own precious hands. The theory that Christ never lived is exploded by the Lord’s Supper. It is His, and His only.
2. Obligation. The words “this do” are a command of the Lord, and the words “all of it” (Matt. 26:27) are better translated “all of you.” This ordinance is for the entire Body of Christ.
2.守聖餐的義務。“要這樣做（do this）” 這話是主的命令，而“all of it ” 更確切的翻譯是“你們全部”。(馬太福音26:27 ）主耶穌又拿起杯來、祝謝了、遞給他們、說: 你們全都要這樣做。這個條令是給整個基督身體的。
a. Who? No one but a baptized child of God should participate in the Lord’s Supper. Those who sat with Him at the last supper had been baptized. Baptism is the symbol of the commencing of the new life, and the Lord’s Supper is a symbol of the sustenance of that life.
b. How often? Some churches observe the Lord’s Supper every Sunday; some, once a month; others, four times a year; and still others, once a year; some never observe the Lord’s Supper. What is the Scriptural stipulation for this observance? “As often” (I Cor. 11:26): there is no set, rigid rule.
c. In What Manner? Some believers are very confused concerning their fitness to partake of the Lord’s Supper after reading I Corinthians 11:27-29. They notice the word “unworthily,” and immediately they review their past mistakes, ever since they became a Christian, and fear that they shall be eating and drinking damnation to themselves if they partake. Let us point out that the word “unworthily” is an adverb, and modifies the word “drink,” which means to drink in an “unworthy manner.” As far as being worthy is concerned, which one of us can call himself worthy? No one! This has reference to the act of participation. The context will give a perfect explanation. In the early church love feasts were held; the rich brought their store of food and wine, while the converted slaves brought nothing. As the feast progressed, the rich believer, keeping his food and drink to himself, soon became drunk. The poor slave, of course, had nothing, and remained sober. The Lord’s Supper was observed at the conclusion of the feast. The drunken believer could not appreciate the Lord’s Supper. In his drunkenness, the cup of the Lord’s Supper meant nothing more to him than another drink of wine. He could not discern the Lord’s body and blood; thus, he drank it “unworthily.” This fact led to many untimely deaths in the Corinthian Church: “For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep” (ICor. 11:30).
If the Christian feels unworthy, it is a good indication that he is worthy, and vice versa. The man who finds some personal quality in himself to make him worthy to partake of the Lord’s Supper had better stay away. The table is not spread for the righteous, but for the unrighteous, who are justified by faith.
b.多久舉行一次？有些教會每個星期日都會守主的晚餐。有些教會，是一個月一次;其他的，有一年四次的; 還有其他，是一年一次; 有些教會從來不守主的晚餐。
讓我們指出“不配”這詞是一個副詞，是在形容“喝”這個動詞，意思是在“不配的態度下喝”。就‘配得’這個考慮而言，我們哪一個人可以稱自己是配得喝呢？沒有任何人是配得的！這裡的‘配得’ 是論到參與領聖餐時的行為。 你讀聖經的前後文就能得到出一個完美的解釋。在早期教會，舉行愛宴的時候; 有錢的信徒帶他們豐盛的食物和葡萄酒來，而信主的奴隸什麼都沒有帶。隨著盛宴的進行，那富有的信徒，只顧自己吃,自己喝，很快就喝醉了。而這些個可憐的奴隸，什麼也沒吃，則是保持清醒的。在宴席結束時，教會舉行主的晚餐掰餅喝酒的儀式。那些醉酒的信徒無能力感恩主的晚餐。在他的酣醉中，主晚餐的杯對他來說只不過是另一杯酒而已。他無法分辨那是主的身體和主的血; 那樣，就“不配”地喝了那杯。這個事實導致哥林多教會中有許多人未到死期就死了：（哥林多前書11:30) “因此、在你們中間有好些軟弱的、與患病的、死的也不少。(死，原文做睡了）”。
4. Constitution. The elements of the Lord’s Supper are bread and fruit of the vine. The bread was unleavened, as it was used in the observance of the Passover, from which the Lord inaugurated the Lord’s Supper.
a. Transubstantiation. This interpretation is held by the Roman Catholic Church. It declares that by the consecration of the priest the bread and wine cease to remain, as such, and become the actual body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ. This Faith contends that when the Lord said, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you” (John 6:53), he meant the actual flesh and blood of Christ. Therefore, the Mass is that ritual which turns the bread and wine into the actual flesh and blood of Christ. The priest alone drinks the wine, as not one drop of Christ’s blood must be spilt. The bread is in the form of a wafer, so that not a crumb of His body should be lost. In answer to this we ask, “How could Christ, while being in His perfect body, hold part of His body in His hand when he said, ‘This is my body’?”
b. Consubstantiation. The Lutherans and the Church of England believe this interpretation, which states that, while the bread remains bread, and the wine remains wine, the body and blood is present in a spiritual sense; the body and blood are present only at the moment when they are partaken of, and after being taken, cease to be the body and blood of Christ.
c. Symbolism. This is the true interpretation, which states that the bread and wine are only symbols of Christ’s body and blood, which were offered upon Calvary’s cross for the remission of sins. “This do in remembrance of me”; it is observed in blessed memory, and that is where it ends.
a. 聖餐形質變（Transubstantiation）的說法。羅馬天主教會所持守這種解釋。它宣稱，通過祭司的聖餐禮的獻上，這餅和酒就不再是餅和酒，而是變成主耶穌基督的真實體血。這種信念聲稱，當（約翰福音6:53主說：“我實實在在的告訴你們、你們若不喫人子的肉、不喝人子的血、就沒有生命在你們裡面”的時候，他意味著是基督實際的肉與血。因此，彌撒就是將餅和酒變成基督的實際的肉與血的儀式。只有司鐸（Priest 如舊約的祭司）牧師喝聖餐禮的酒，因不能讓任何一滴基督的血溢出杯子。餅是薄餅的形狀，這樣就不會落掉主身上的任何一部分碎屑. . .
b. 聖餐合質論（Consubstantiation）的說法。路德教會和英格蘭教會相信這種解釋，這論點指出，雖然餅仍然是餅，酒仍然是酒，身體和血都在一種屬靈意義上的同在; 主的身體和血只在他們分餅喝杯的那一刻真實臨在，而在被吃喝之後，就不再是基督的身體和血了。
c.聖餐象徵論（Symbolism）。這是真實理解的闡釋，這個論點說餅和酒只是基督身體和血的象徵，祂的身體與血在各各他（骷髏地）的十字架上被獻上的，作為撤銷世人的罪。 “為的是記念我” （路加福音22:19, 林前11:24) ;聖餐在蒙福的紀念中被承認/遵守/參與，這是聖餐的終極意義。
6. Limitation. How long should the Church continue this observance? Till He comes again. What is our answer to the scoffer who jeers at the Second Coming, and who asks, “Where is the promise of His coming?” We point to the Lord’s Table and reply, “There is the promise of His coming.”
6.聖餐的期限。教會應該繼續遵守這個規定多久？答案是：直到基督再來。我們對那些嘲笑‘基督第二次再來’ 嘲笑者的回答, 與那些問“哪裡有應許說祂要再來？” 的人，我們指著主聖餐的桌子回答：“那就是祂要再來的應許。”
a. Its Value Doctrinally.
(1) The Person of Christ.
(a) His Humanity. His humanity is as real as His Deity. The symbols speak of His actual human body and blood, and it is most essential that it is human, as the atonement must be in the nature of that which sinned (“Christ died for us”).
(b) His Deity. His Deity is expressed in the words “Lord’s Supper.” All titles of Deity are in this one word, “Lord.”
(2) The Work of Christ.
(a) His Death. The elements of the Lord’s Supper portray this fact, for the body and blood are together in life, but separated in death.
(b) His Resurrection and Second Coming. “Till I come” does not mean “till I come from the grave”, but “till I come from heaven.”
(3) The Way of Salvation.
(a) It Assumes Our Guilt and Helplessness.
(b) It Emphasizes Substitution. (“Broken for you”)
(c) It Reminds Us That Salvation Is Free. (Given for you)
(d) It Declares the Gift of Salvation Must Be Accepted. (Take, eat and drink)
（b）祂的神性。他的神性在“主的晚餐”這個詞裡被表達出來。神性的所有頭銜都在 ‘主’ 這個字裡面。
（b）祂的復活和再來。 啟示錄2:25的 “直等到我來” 並不意味著“直等到我從墳墓來”，而是“直等到我從天而來”。
b. Its Value Devotionally.
(1) We Come With Confession.
(2) We Come With Prayer.
(3) We Come With Consecration.
(4) We Come With Humility.
(5) We Come With Thanksgiving.
(6) The Whole Man Is Engaged.
(a) Ears to Hear His Invitation.
(b) Eyes to See Its Symbol.
(c) Hands That Handle the Elements.
(d) Mouth Which Eats the Elements.
(e) Body Which Assimilates the Element — Becomes Part of Us.
（e）身體吸收聖餐的元素- 酒與餅與所象徵的血與肉 – 使成為我們的一部分。
c. Its Value Practically.
(1) It Is a Means of Grace.
(2) It Is a Means of Testimony.
(3) It Is a Means of Strengthening Faith.
(4) It Is a Means to Promote Our Love Toward Him.
(5) It is a Means to Promote Love Toward One Another.
(6) It Is a Means to Promote Fellowship. This fellowship is one with another in Christ around the Lord’s Table, He being the center.
(7) It is a Means to Stimulate Holiness.
d. Its Value Prophetically. If the Lord Jesus is not coming the second time, why celebrate the Lord’s Supper? He is coming! Remember, in answer to those who ask, “Where is the promise of His coming?”, we point to the Lord’s Supper.